1 has problems. There are two main clauses there.
Clause #1 = It is December 7, 1941,
Clause #2 = there ... Hawaii.
3. correct (unless fleet is supposed to have a capital F on it ... does it?)
4. This is another one that has two clauses. Can you see them?
5. incorrect; what are?
5. memorials (are)
#5 is now correct.
Just focusing on the verbs put in parentheses in 1 and 4 ...
#1 - verb is is or are -- what ONE WORD is the subject? And which verb will you choose?
#4 - Consider only the clause in quotation marks. What is the subject and what is the matching verb?
1. Pearl Harbor (is)
4. Japan (is)
#1 -- WHAT is??
#4 is now correct.
1. December 7, 1941 (is)
No. Only in THIS clause:
" ... there (is, are) a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii."
[On December 7, 1941, what happened?]
Okay, in rereading this entire thread, let me point out that the only thing wrong with your first answer for #1 was the subject. The subject in that clause is ONE word. You posted two words for the subject, at first. Which ONE is the subject?
1. attack (is)
Many Americans ask themselves, "Why (is/are) Japan attacking the United States?"
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