With about 196 countries around the world, it would take several books to go into their policies. In general government policies affect their citizens in much the same way they do in the U.S. Some countries have rigid censorship, and their citizens don't have the freedoms found in western nations.
Of or relating to government expenditures, revenues, and debt: a fiscal policy of incurring budget deficits to stimulate a weak economy.
Of or relating to finance or finances.
Fiscal policies are any decisions regarding how a government spends money. Not all fiscal policies have to do with a "fiscal cliff" -- http://www.answers.com/topic/united-states-fiscal-cliff
You should read up on the fiscal policies recently enacted in Greece and Crete. Those were negative for those countries' people. You should also read about fiscal policies in place in Germany or France or Switzerland or just about any other country you can think of. Go to www.google.com and enter fiscal policies Germany or whatever country you want to explore in this manner.