Okay, I followed the same format for your other post, but I am not so sure since I haven't done research requiring some of the concepts and/or have only taken one class concerning some of the topics. But I am pretty sure that the one's that I wasn't sure about are probably in your notes or you can find them using google. Best of luck!!!!!!!!!!
1. Which process involves both passive and active transport?
*****Cotransport requires the use of ATP (active transport) and a integral membrane protein (facilitated/passive transport)
2. How does the liver in a healthy body respond to elevated blood sugar levels? .
2. c.)It stores sugar as glycogen.
******Glucagon and insulin are both released from the pancreas. Insulin is used to convert monomers of glucose into polymers called glycogen, whereas glycogen is broken down to glucose monomers by glycogen.
3. How does an insulin injection in a person with diabetes help maintain homeostasis?
d.)by triggering the body cells to take in glucose
*******See the explanation for the above.
4. Which would be present when an animal is having a humoral or cell-mediated immune response?
a.)helper T cells
c.)cytotoxic T cells
***** All are present during a cell-mediated immune response, so I really donít know. However, macrophages are the first on scene during an invasion by an antigen.
5. How are the tobacco hornworm and monarch butterfly similar?
a.)Both release cardenolides.
b.)Both feed on toxic substances.
c.)Both sequester toxins within their bodies.
d.)Both use toxins to ward off rivals for mating.
e.)Both feed on nicotine-containing plants.<----
******Do not know about this one; this has to do with kingdoms, phylums, etc. I donít remember enough to be of any assistance.
6. The phenomenon of autocatalysis is involved in a positive feedback loop that activates certain digestive enzymes. Which likely results when the digestive enzymes are activated?
b.)additional enzyme activation
******This is the basic definition of positive feedback. The production of one element in a cycle causes the production of another element in the earlier part of the cycle.
7. How does nonshivering thermogenesis heat the body?
a.)by increasing cellular respiration<--
b.)by increasing the amount of brown fat an animal has
c.)by increasing the number of mitochondria in the body d.)by decreasing the rate of metabolism
e.)by decreasing ATP production
*****I believe that you are correct, but I am not sure.
8. Which best describes the arrangement of the phospholipid bilayer?
a.)Hydrophilic heads face outward; hydrophobic tails face inward.
****The tail his hydrophobic not the head.
9. How is carrying capacity at the population level similar to diffusion at the cellular level?
a.)They both result in a dynamic equilibrium.<----
b.)They both result in a static equilibrium.
c.)They both represent beginning phases of growth.
d.)Neither depends on biotic factors in the environment.
e.)Neither is sustainable over the long term.
10. Which statement accurately contrasts endotherms and ectotherms?
a.)Only endotherms use their own metabolism to regulate temperature.
b.)Only ectotherms use behavior to regulate temperature.
c.)Endotherms always have higher body temperatures than ectotherms.
d.)Endotherms can tolerate larger swings in internal temperatures than ectotherms.<--
e.)Ectotherms must ingest more calories than endotherms.
****I believe that you are correct, but I am not sure.
11. Which best describes the currently accepted structural model of the cell membrane?
a.) a fluid membrane of primarily lipids and a mosaic of carbohydrates.
b.) a dynamic membrane of geometrically arranged lipids interspersed with proteins.<----
c.) a dynamic membrane of irregularly arranged lipids and proteins.
d.) a stiff membrane of immovable proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
e.) a stiff membrane of primarily lipids and a mosaic of proteins.
12. Which is a homeostatic benefit of estivation?
a.)conservation of moisture
*****Estivation has to do with maintaining homeostasis by decreasing body temperature, metabolism, etc. Therefore, in my opinion, conservation of moisture is the best answer choice.
13. What is true of apical meristem cells?
e.)They are made of totipotent cells.
*****I believe that it is e, since the cells of meristemsí are totipotent, but I cannot be 100% sure.
14. Which is true of osmoregulation in aquatic animals?
a.)Most marine invertebrates are osmoregulators.
b.)Most animals are euryhaline.
c.)Freshwater animals have lower internal osmolarities than saltwater animals.<----
d.)Freshwater animals are osmoconformers.
e.)Marine reptiles are osmoconformers.
****I do not remember enough to be of any assistance for this question.
15. Which cell structure does not function in transporting substances within the cell?
16. What is phototropism?
a.)growth toward light<----
b.)growth in response to light
c.)seasonal variations in growth
d.)increased growth during photosynthesis
e.)flowering in response to light
17. Why are plant stomata located on the bottoms of leaves?
a.)to have greater sun exposure
b.)to have greater ventilation
c.)to conserve moisture<----
d.)to protect guard cells
e.)to utilize pooling water
18. Which process relies on the presence of a proton gradient?
d.)ATP production by mitochondria
*****ATP is produced by the passing of protons from NADH to the electron transport chain.
19. How do plants defend themselves against herbivory?
b.)with specific immune responses
c.)though a hypersensitive response
d.)using defense mechanisms<----
e.)with an inflammatory response
20. All excretory systems produce nitrogenous waste. Which of the series of nitrogenous waste forms is organized from the least to most amount of energy they require to create?
a.)uric acid, urea, ammonia
b.)ammonia, urea, uric acid<----
c.)ammonia, uric acid, urea
d.)urea, ammonia, uric acid
e.)urea, uric acid, ammonia
21. What animal has a pulmocutaneous circuit?
22. Which biological process is not an example of negative feedback?
b.)blood sugar regulation
e.)stomata opening and closing
23. Why is temperature an important abiotic factor for cells?
a.)Cells regulate temperature independent of the extracellular fluid.
b.)Cold temperatures can cause proteins to denature.
c.)Cold temperatures can cause cells to shrivel.
d.)Temperature affects membrane fluidity.<----
e.)Hot temperatures can cause cells to burst.
****D is the best answer choice because the other answer choices are false.
24. How are water and air different as respiratory mediums?
d.)Water has a variable oxygen content, while air has a constant oxygen content.
****E is false. Gas exchange occurs more readily in air then in water. The best answer choice is d.
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