If I disagreed with an answer, I deleted all the answer choices and left a note explaining why for all but one. I also left a note in ******* for some of the answer choices. Best of luck!!!!!!!!!!
1. Which process results in an individual inheriting the incorrect number of chromosomes?
2. Which data in Hershey and Chase's experiment supported that DNA was the genetic material?
a.)The radiolabeled phosphorus was found within the infected cell.
b.)The radiolabeled phosphorus was incorporated into the host DNA.<-----
c.)The radiolabeled sulphur was found within the infected cell.
d.)Both the radiolabeled phosphorus and sulphur occurred in the infected cell.
e.)The amount of radiolabeled sulphur increased during cell division.
3. In organisms that can switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, which conditions will favor sexual reproduction?
c.) fluctuating environmental conditions
****Asexual reproduction saves energy that an organism would expend during replication. If the environment is hostile (fluctuating conditions), then genetic variation bought on by sexual reproduction allows offspring to better survive and reproduce.
4. Which best describes the overall process of DNA replication?
a.)DNA helicase unzips the double helix, DNA polymerase replicates the new strand, and DNA ligase binds the Okazaki fragments.<--
b.) DNA polymerase unzips the double helix, DNA polymerase replicates the new strand, and DNA helicase binds the Okazaki fragments.
c.) DNA polymerase unzips the double helix, DNA helicase replicates the new strand, and DNA ligase binds the Okazaki fragments.
d.)DNA ligase unzips the double helix, DNA helicase replicates the new strand, and DNA polymerase binds the Okazaki fragments.
e.)DNA ligase unzips the double helix, DNA polymerase replicates the new strand, and DNA helicase binds the Okazaki fragments.
5. Which best describes the key discovery by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty?
a.)DNA has a double helix structure.
b.)DNA is the genetic material.<----
c.) DNA consists of chromosomes.
d.)DNA is found in all organisms.
e.) DNA codes for proteins.
6. Which statement about the daughter cells produced from asexual reproduction in bacteria and archaea is correct?
a.)They have genetic material identical with the parental cells.<---
b.)They contain half the amount of the genetic material of the parental cells.
c.)They contain some variation of the parental genetic material.
d.)They contain twice the genetic materials of the parental cells.
e.)They contain a combination of genetic material from the two parental cells.
7. Which is not true about RNA?
a.)It is a single strand.
b.)It has ribose.
c.)It is transcribed from DNA.
d.)Uracil replaces thymine.
e.)Only one type exists.<----
8. What is the genotype of an individual with Klinefelter's syndrome?
9. Which function is incorrect for processes of protein synthesis?
a.)The release factor adds water to the peptide chain.
b.)The P site is the location of the growing peptide chain.
c.)The E site is the exit site of the tRNA.
d.)The A site is the binding site of aminoacyl-charged tRNA.
e.)The AUG codon signals to release the rRNA complex.<--
10. Chargaff's study of nucleotides found in human DNA 30.3% adenine and 19.5% guanine. Based on these data, what percentages of thymine and cytosine did Chargaff mostly likely observe?
a.)thymine 19.5%, cytosine 19.5%
b.)thymine 30.3%, cytosine 30.3%
c.)thymine 22.5%, cytosine 19.5%
d.) thymine 19.5%, cytosine 30.3%
e.) thymine 30.3%, cytosine 19.9%<--
11. Which best describes how retroviruses function?
a.)They transcribe viral DNA into RNA using host cell machinery and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
b.) They transcribe viral RNA into DNA using host cell machinery and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.<--
c.)They transcribe viral RNA into DNA using viral cell machinery and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
d.)They transcribe viral RNA into DNA using host cell machinery and the enzyme reverse translatase.
e.)They transcribe host RNA into DNA using host cell machinery and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
12. Which is not a characteristic of eukaryotic DNA?
a.) double helical design
d.) telomere structure
e.) one replication initiation site
13. Which is the main role of meiosis in animals?
d.) to form gametes
****All other cells in animals divide by mitosis except for gametes
14. Why is mitochondrial DNA only inherited from the mother?
a.) The genetic code for mDNA occurs on the X chromosome.
b.) The offspring inherits the cytoplasmic material from the egg.<-----
c.) The expression of the mDNA is influenced by genes on the X chromosome.
d.) Mitochondrial is only required in females.
e.) The mitochondrial DNA inherited from males is nonfunctional.
15. Why is the fern life cycle considered an alternation of generations?
a.) The structures shift from macrophyte to microphyte structures.
b.) The genotype shifts between two distinctive diploid states.
c.) The cycle shifts between two distinctly different phenotypes.
d.) The cycle shifts from the sporophyte generation to the gametophyte generation.<-----
e.) The cycle shifts from an asexual state to a sexual state.
16. Which genes will tend to move together during the process of meiosis?
a.) genes located on opposite ends of the same homologous chromosome
b.) genes located on the sex chromosomes
c.) genes located on different homologous chromosomes
d.) genes located near each other on a chromosome<----
e.) genes located far away from a crossing over point
17. Which is not the correct description for levels of protein structure?
a.) amino acid sequence: primary structure
b.) alpha helix and beta sheets: secondary structure
c.) hydrogen bonding: secondary structure
d.) R group interactions: tertiary structure
e.) disulfide bonds: quaternary structure<------
******I will go with that, but hydrogen bonding is used to create tertiary structure not secondary structure. However, since alpha helixes and beta sheets are connected by hydrogen bonds then I guess you can say this is true.
18. The crown of thorns sea star is a threat to coral reefs because it feeds on coral tissue. Conservationists originally planned to rid reefs of these pests by collecting them and cutting them into pieces. They later found that cutting them apart actually increased the population of crown of thorns. Which process was responsible for this increase?
a.) binary fission
19. Which is not a contribution of Gregor Mendel?
a.) He determined that "factors" are passed from parent to offspring.
b.) He recognized that some traits are dominant while others are recessive.
c.) He developed the law of independent assortment.
d.) He described the presence of linked genes.<----
e.) He described the law of segregation.
20. Which is not a characteristic of Watson and Crick's model of DNA?
a.) Alternating sugars occur on each strand.
b.) The nucleotide bases occur on the internal structure.
c.) The nucleotide bases pair as A with T and G with
d.) Disulfide bonds occur between the sugars and nucleotides.<------
e.) Hydrogen bonds occur between bases on adjacent strands.
21. How does meiosis support Mendel's laws?
a.) Each gamete only receives one allele for a trait.
****Could be A, B, or D, but Mendel’s laws state, “A gamete only gets one of two alleles that are present in a somatic cell.”
22. What is the result of a cross between an individual who is Hhtt with one who is hhTT? Use a Punnett square if necessary.
a.) 2 : 1 : 1
b.) 9 : 3 : 3 : 1<-------
c.) 5 : 4 : 1
d.) 2 : 2 : 1 : 1
e.) 9 : 6 : 1
****All of the resulting offspring should either be HhTt or hhTt, a 1:1 ratio; I have no idea about this one.
23. Which does not describe a modification of RNA prior to its leaving the nucleus?
a.) addition of a 5' GTP cap
b.) addition of a 3' poly-A tail
c.) addition of the initiation complex<------
d.) removal of introns
e.) splicing of exons
24. Which characteristic of autosomal dominant disorders make them rare?
c.) The trait is not hidden by heterozygote carriers.
25. Which aspect of DNA structure results in the equal spacing seen in the X-ray diffraction?
a.) Certain bases pair with other bases.<-------
b.) Sugars are bound to bases.
c.) Bases are of equal size.
d.) Hydrogen bonds hold the two strands together.
e.) DNA consists of nucleotides and not amino acids.
Thank you soo much. Will you be willing to help me with some more questions?
1. The phenomenon of autocatalysis is involved in a positive feedback loop that activates certain digestive enzymes. Which likely results when the digestive enzymes are activated?
a.)the suppression of other enzymes
b.)additional enzyme activation
c.)a chemical that blocks additional enzyme production<-----
d.)eventual inactivation of the enzymes
e.)a release of hormones that trigger satiety
2. How does nonshivering thermogenesis heat the body?
a.)by increasing cellular respiration<--
b.)by increasing the amount of brown fat an animal has
c.)by increasing the number of mitochondria in the body
d.)by decreasing the rate of metabolism
e.)by decreasing ATP production
3. How is carrying capacity at the population level similar to diffusion at the cellular level?
a.)They both result in a dynamic equilibrium.<----
b.)They both result in a static equilibrium.
c.)They both represent beginning phases of growth.
d.)Neither depends on biotic factors in the environment.
e.)Neither is sustainable over the long term.
4. Which statement accurately contrasts endotherms and ectotherms?
a.)Only endotherms use their own metabolism to regulate temperature.
b.)Only ectotherms use behavior to regulate temperature.
c.)Endotherms always have higher body temperatures than ectotherms.
d.)Endotherms can tolerate larger swings in internal temperatures than ectotherms.<----
e.)Ectotherms must ingest more calories than endotherms.
5. Which best describes the currently accepted structural model of the cell membrane?
a.) a fluid membrane of primarily lipids and a mosaic of carbohydrates.
b.) a dynamic membrane of geometrically arranged lipids interspersed with proteins.<----
c.) a dynamic membrane of irregularly arranged lipids and proteins.
d.) a stiff membrane of immovable proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
e.) a stiff membrane of primarily lipids and a mosaic of proteins.
6. Which is a homeostatic benefit of estivation?
a.)conservation of moisture
b.)protection of territory<----
d.)increased body temperature
e.)increased pheromone production
7. What is true of apical meristem cells?
a.)They contain all the types of cells of a mature organism.
b.)They undergo gametogenesis.
c.)They contain differentiated cells.<--
d.)They only contain pluripotent cells.
e.)They are made of totipotent cells.
8. Which is true of osmoregulation in aquatic animals?
a.)Most marine invertebrates are osmoregulators.
b.)Most animals are euryhaline.
c.)Freshwater animals have lower internal osmolarities than saltwater animals.<----
d.)Freshwater animals are osmoconformers.
e.)Marine reptiles are osmoconformers.
9. Which cell structure does not function in transporting substances within the cell?
10. What is phototropism?
a.)growth toward light<----
b.)growth in response to light
c.)seasonal variations in growth
d.)increased growth during photosynthesis
e.)flowering in response to light
11. Why are plant stomata located on the bottoms of leaves?
a.)to have greater sun exposure
b.)to have greater ventilation
c.)to conserve moisture<----
d.)to protect guard cells
e.)to utilize pooling water
12. Which process relies on the presence of a proton gradient?
a.)digestion by lysosomes
b.)digestion by peroxisomes
c.)protein assembly by ribosomes<--
d.)ATP production by mitochondria
e.)biochemical signaling by the nucleus
13. How do plants defend themselves against herbivory?
b.)with specific immune responses
c.)though a hypersensitive response
d.)using defense mechanisms<----
e.)with an inflammatory response
14. All excretory systems produce nitrogenous waste. Which of the series of nitrogenous waste forms is organized from the least to most amount of energy they require to create?
a.)uric acid, urea, ammonia
b.)ammonia, urea, uric acid<----
c.)ammonia, uric acid, urea
d.)urea, ammonia, uric acid
e.)urea, uric acid, ammonia
15. Which biological process is not an example of negative feedback?
b.)blood sugar regulation
e.)stomata opening and closing
16. Why is temperature an important abiotic factor for cells?
a.)Cells regulate temperature independent of the extracellular fluid.
b.)Cold temperatures can cause proteins to denature.
c.)Cold temperatures can cause cells to shrivel.
d.)Temperature affects membrane fluidity.<----
e.)Hot temperatures can cause cells to burst.
17. How are water and air different as respiratory mediums?
a.)Water requires an open circulatory system, while air doesn’t.
b.)Ventilation requires less energy in water than air.
c.)Water can require countercurrent exchange, but air doesn’t.
d.)Water has a variable oxygen content, while air has a constant oxygen content.
e.)Gas exchange occurs more readily in water than air.<-----
I posted my help in another post. I am not on here all of the time. I just have some free time and go on this forum to engage my mind in science. However, when I do come on and I think I can help then I will. But I am not one of Jishka's experts.