3) The following statements are generalizations about cell signaling events made by a
student with a basic knowledge of biology (a little knowledge is a dangerous thing). Your
professor has requested that you tutor this student. You note that in each case there are
several reasons that the student’s statements are too broad. What would you say to this
student regarding each of the statements if your job is to give the student a more complete
understanding of biology? In other words, what additional information would you give the
1) In cell signaling events, the protein upstream in a given cascade is responsible for the
activation of the protein directly downstream of it.
2) Cell signaling events result in the transcription of genes.
3) Cell signaling events involve activation due to phosphorylation of proteins.
4) Cell signaling events begin with a soluble ligand binding to a receptor in the exterior of