posted by paul on .
Dr. Doolittle was often late for his daily psychology class, and his eager students decided they'd had enough. One day, the students put their waiting time and their knowledge of psychology to use by coming up with a plan to encourage the good doctor to be on time. The class agreed that on the days Dr. Doolittle arrived late, they would refuse to smile at his usual cheery greeting. Then, although they would be polite, they would act completely disinterested throughout his lecture, yawning every now and then or resting their heads on their desks. However, every time Dr. Doolittle arrived on time, the class agreed to greet him with friendly smiles and appear to be riveted to his pearls of wisdom throughout the lecture. Soon the professor was arriving on time for every class. Based on your knowledge of behaviorism, which one of the following principles did the students use to make the professor come to class on time?
A. Classical conditioning
B. Pavlovian learning
C. Observational learning
D. Operant conditioning
Would it be B?
Pavlovian/classical conditioning involves reflexive behavior. Observational involves modelng and imitation. It is D.
This might help more.
Classical conditioning is characterized by several factors.
I. The key relationship is associating antecedent events.
II. It originates with reflexive behavior. The behavior is "built in."
III. Classical conditioning is essentially a process of stimulus substitution. The response essentially remains the same.
IV. The response is elicited, since the behavior is reflexive.
Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning was started by Skinner and his box. In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning has some specific qualities.
I. Consequences to responses are the key relationship.
II. Emitted responses are voluntary rather than reflexive.
III. Response substitution occurs -- unreinforced responses go to extinction, while reinforced responses become stronger. Essentially operant conditioning is response contingent reinforcement.