If you post your answers, I'll send this to our Spanish expert, SraJMcGin.
Im not sure about the rest :(
I sent both posts to Sra.
First of all, do you know when the Subjunctive is required? None of these will use an infinitive. If the main verb is one of doubt, disbelief or denial (look at the very beginning when you wrote that), the verb in the dependent clause will require the Subjunctive. The Subjunctive is ALWAYS introduced by "que" except with Ojalá.
First of all, decide if you need the Subjunctive or the Indicative. Then, do you know how to form the Subjunctive? It is based on the "yo" form of the President Indicative (or the very first tense you learned), with the "opposite" ending, meaning that an -ar verb uses them vowel "e" while the -er and -ir verbs use the theme vowel "a." When you learned the Ud/Uds commands, you were using the Subjunctive already, believe it or not!
Now I'm not sure what sort of "review" I need to supply for you, in order to make this easier.
I'll do #1 for you, and then you can tell me the questions you have.
I don't believe that the government (resolves, is resolving, may resolve, etc. as possible translations) the problem of contamination rapidly.
No creo que el gobierno resuelva el problema, etc.
Here is a Review containing much more than you need at this time, but hang onto it and all of it will eventually make sense! If it IS too much too soon, just ask for each point as you meet it.
Subjunctive for Jiskha:
Oh, oh! You have entered the realm of the Subjunctive! It may be dying out in English, but it is alive and well (or SHOULD be) in Spanish ! First of all, you must categorize the main verb, for the dependent verb is totally dependent on that main verb. If you have 2 separate subjects (one in the dependent clause and a different one in the independent clause), see if the main verb is one of 3 kinds.
1) imposition of will. One person wants another person to do something. Since you can NOT see into the cloudy crystal ball, you can't know IF it will happen or not. THIS dependent verb must be in the Subjunctive.
Now, if you aren't sure how to FORM the present and/or the Imperfect or Past Subjunctive, ASK. Only pretty much in newspapers will you see the Future Subjunctive, so don't worry about it.
2. Is the main verb one of emotion = one person is angry, sad, glad, etc. about something someone else MAY or MIGHT do, the dependent verb will be in the Subjunctive (in other words the main verb is "subjective" you might say)
3. Is the main verb one of doubt, uncertainty about another event? Then the dependent verb also is in the Subjunctive.
Next item of business: The main verb is in the present, future the Subjunctive is the Present. BUT if the main verb is in the past: Imperfect, Preterit, Conditional, the Subjunctive is in the PAST or Imperfect Subjunctive.
(present with present BUT past with past)
Now the Subjunctive is what I call "the thinking person's tense" so see if you can classify the main verb as 1, 2, or 3 and the sequence of tense as present or past.
1. Dudaba = 3) a verb of coubt in the past tense. You are looking for the Past or Imperfect Subjunctive (escribiera)
2. Indicative here - no Subjunctive. a) asistió = Preterit, DID attend, b) asistía = Imperfect, WAS attendING or c) asiste = Present, IS attendING or d) ha asistido - Present Perfect, HAS attendED. Hopefully you selected a?
3. Main verb is 3) one of doubt and it is past tense so hunt for the Past/Imperfect Subjunctive. (there are 2 forms - the -se form which is pretty, flowery but harder to pronounce and the -ra form which is easier to say so most often for orally (as opposed to literary). I can not tell WHAT you selected, but the answer is d.
Now, feel free to ask any questions whatsoever! In addition to what I have explained here for you, there are MANY adverbs of "time" which require the Subjunctive. There are 5 you can memorize and then you will get a feeling for the others.
Imagine the crystal ball. Can you clearly see that it IS happening, HAS happened, WILL happen for sure, used to happen, etc. = Indicative (no Subjunctive at all). If it is CLOUDY and you can not tell for certain whether it MIGHT (past subjunctive) or MAY (present subjunctive.
Another difficulty in translating from Spanish to English is that the Subjunctive can sound like: an infinitive, the present tense, the perfect tense, the past, future, conditional, etc. BUT THE RULES ARE THE RULES!
what are the answers
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