posted by sandra on .
please help me by describing what do you really mean by pronom en and pronom relatifs and its uses
I'll send this to SraJMcGin.
Without knowing what level of French you are studying (II, III, IV, V), I have no idea just how much information you need! So, I'll make it rather complete and you can select what you need. However, as you get to further grammar, you might want to save other sections of this.
First of all, a pronoun substitutes for a noun. There are many different kinds of pronouns, but usually 2 main categories: personal and impersonal.
Personal merely means that the following pronouns change according to the grammatical person they represent. There are 5 different kinds of French personal pronouns.
Subject: je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils, elles
Direct Object: me, te, le,(l'), la(l'), nous, vous, les
Indirect Object: me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur
Reflexive: me, te, se, nous, vous, se
Stressed: moi, toi, lui, elle, soi, nous, vous, eux, elles
*In the imperative, me and te sometimes change to moi and toi. Plus don't forget that the "e" or "a" in me, te, le, la, etc. when followed by a vowel, is omitted and you'll see l'ai, etc. for example.
A French relative pronoun, like an English one, links a dependent or relative clause to a main clause. They may replace a subject, direct object, indirect object or preposition so study them one at a time.
French relative pronouns: que, qui, lequel, don't and où have no "one-to-one equivalents; depending on the context, they may be translated as: who, whom, that, which, whose, where or when. Although they are sometimes optional in English, they are required in French.
qui = replaces a subject or indirect object that is a person and translates as who, what, which, that, whom
que = replaces a direct object and translates as whom, what, which, that
lequel = replaces an indirect object that is a thing and translates as what, which, that
dont = is the object of "de" and indicates possession, translated as of which, from which, that whose
où = indicates a place or time and is translated as when, where, which, that
NOTE: ce que, ce qui, ce don't and qu oi are indefinite relative pronouns.
Indefinite relative pronouns:
ce qui = subject = what
ce que/qu' = direct object = what
ce don't = object of "de" = which, what
quoi = object of a preposition = which, what
(The fifth indefinite relative pronoun which is rare and complicated is "quiconque" so I'll not explain that here.)
The two most confused relative pronouns are "qui" and "que."
que (qu') replaces the direct object (person OR thing) in the dependent clause. example: J'ai acheté le livre. Mon professeur l'a écrit. = J'ai acheté le livre que mon prof a écrit. = I bought the book (that) my professor wrote. (I have NOT used a feminine direct object here because a past participle must agree with a preceding feminine direct object.)
qui replaces the subject (person or thing)( in the dependent clause.
example: Je cherche l'artiste. Il étudie à Paris. = Je cherche l'artiste qui étudie à Paris. = I'm looking for the artist (who is) studying in Paris.
qui also replaces an indirect object referring to a person after a preposition, including prepositions rquired after certain verbs or expressions.
example: Je vois une dame. Je travaille avec cette dame. = Je vois une dame avec qui je travaille. = I see a lady with whom I work./I see a woman I work with.
If the object of the preposition is a thing, you need lequel.
Exception with the preposition "de" in which case you need dont.
Now, aren't you glad y ou asked?
Sra (aka Mme)
i am very glad and thanks for helping me
thank you maam for sending this questions