February 25, 2017

Homework Help: English

Posted by Henry2 on Friday, February 17, 2012 at 5:40pm.

Here is the second part on history. Thank you very much!

1) During his reign, a series of laws were introduced which were to fix the course of modern Parliamentary England. In 1689, the Bill of Rights established that the Crown would not be able to rule the country without Parliament.
2) The Toleration Act, which was passed in the same year, granted dissenters reasonable freedom of religion. Finally, the Act of Settlement of 1701 ensured that, within the royal family, only Protestants could be heirs to the throne.
3)In 1714 Queen Anne died and she was succeeded by her nearest protestant relative, George of Hanover, who became King under the name of George I. He was very unpopular because he could speak no English and preferred Germany to England.
4) The new situation caused the ministers to meet without the king and to choose a Prime Minister, responsible to the king for the government’s policy.
5) This had important consequences: it laid the foundations of the Parliamentary monarchy. George I was succeeded by his brother George II, during whose reign the old Anglo-French hostilities were renewed.
6) The 18th century England was called Augustan after the period of Roman history which had achieved political stability and power as well as a flourishing of the arts.
7) It was a materialistic society, pragmatic and responsive to economic pressure. Its political institutions were hierarchical, hereditary and privileged.
8) Elections were controlled by the local landowners, since voting was not secret. Politicians were concerned with bribing the electorate either with money or with the promise of jobs. The state was to protect legal rights but was not to interfere in private property.
9) It fostered individualism, and wasn’t concerned with abstractions such as social justice, equality or fraternity.
10) Liberal thought influenced the new view of the world and affirmed free-will, salvation for all, the goodness of mankind, and its capacity for progress. Optimism encouraged faith in progress. The Augustan were interested in real life. Virtue came to have two meanings.
11) Firstly, a disposition of benevolence towards oneself and the others. Secondly, a new interest in the culture of the heart, in man’s inner and emotional side.

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