How did minoans and Mycenaeans make a living?
Minoans and Mycenaeans
The Minoan civilization rose around 2800 B. C. on the island of Crete. The Minoans, also known as Cretans, grew wheat, barley, grapes, and olives. When the olive groves and vineyards produced more than was needed, the Minoans traded the surplus for goods they could not make or grow on Crete.
Since Crete was forested, the Minoans learned carpentry skills and became good carpenters. They also learned to work with metal. They used their metalworking and carpentry skills to construct ships and began to earn a living from trade instead of farming.
When threatened by pirates, the Minoans changed the way they built their ships so the ships could go faster. They made them slimmer, with two or three masts instead of one. The Minoans also built a deck over the heads of the rowers to protect them. They placed a wooden beam in the prow of the ship. It was used to smash a hole in enemy ships and sink them.
Over time, the Minoans drove off the pirates. By about 2000 B. C., Crete was the world's first important maritime civilization. Minoan merchants traveled to trade pottery, leather, bronze armor, and metal jewelry.
The Minoans were a small people with bronze skin and dark hair. Men wore striped loincloths, long robes with flower patterns, or trousers that bagged at the knees. Women wore full skirts and short-sleeved jackets that bagged at the front. The Minoans wore tight belts to show off their small waists. They wore jewelry, too.
The Minoans spent their time in a variety of ways. Men farmed and fished. They raised cattle, long-horned sheep, and goats. They also served in the navy and royal guard. Women performed household duties, attended sporting events, and went hunting in chariots.
They people in Crete loved sports. They built what was probably the world's first arena. It was open to the air. Stone steps formed the grandstands, which seated about 500 people. The royal family had their own seats.
The Minoans held boxing matches and bull leaping in the arena. In bull leaping, a young man and woman leaped over the bull. One would grab the bull's horns and flip over the bull while performing stunts. The woman stood behind the bull and caught him. Many experts think that bull leaping was a religious practice as well as a sport.
The Minoans built many cities, which were different from those of other ancient civilizations. At the center of each Minoan city was a palace, not a temple. Also, Minoan cities did not have walls around them. People depended on the navy for protection.
One of the largest cities was Knossos. It covered about 28 acres or 11.8 hectares. An immense palace took up about one-fifth of that area. The Minoans decorated the inside of the palaces with frescoes. The palace had bathrooms with flush toilets. The rooms also had heat and running water.
The palace had many entrances. Passageways formed a labyrinth. Because labyrinth means "Double Ax," the palace was called "The House of the Double Ax." The palace was also called this because it was filled with pictures, carvings, and bronze models of a double ax.
Sea captains, merchants, and shipbuilders lived in houses around the palace. Around their houses were artisans who made cups, vases, and jewelry.
Houses were constructed around courtyards. Most houses were two stories high. The inside of these houses were decorated with frescoes. Each house had its own well and drains.
Most early Minoan houses had no street entrances. A person entered and exited through the roof using a ladder. Later, wooden doors and parchment windows were added.
No one knows why the Minoan civilization ended. Some think that an eruption of the volcano Thera (Santorini) caused tsunamis and destroyed Crete.
The Mycenaeans came from the grasslands of southern Russia. At around 2000 B. C., small groups of Mycenaeans made their way to the to the Balkan Peninsula. Finally, they settled in Greece.
The Mycenaeans built fortress-palaces on hilltops. In times of danger, the people of the village got shelter inside the palace walls. The main feature of these palaces was the megaron. The king held council meetings in here.
Land was divided into estates and was farmed by slaves or tenants. Landowners gave the king horses, chariots, weapons, wheat, farm animals, honey, and hides in exchange for protection.
Although they kept large herds of cattle, the Mycenaeans relied on hunting to get meat. They hunted rabbit, deer, boar, bulls, and birds. Women rode with the men during the hunt. They Mycenaeans used greyhounds to sniff out prey. The game was captured with nets or killed with spears, slings, or bows and arrows.
After the Mycenaeans settled in Greece, the Minoans visited them. The Mycenaeans imitated Minoan metal work. They adapted the Cretan script to their own language. They copied Minoan ships and learned to navigate.
The Mycenaeans also grew olives. They made presses to squeeze olives. They used the oil as lamp fuel, cooking, and rubbing on their bodies. They sold plain oil in vases. This made the Mycenaeans very wealthy. It also led to the founding of trading stations on nearby islands.
The Mycenaeans were warriors at heart. They used large hide shields with wooden frames, spears, and swords in battle. The leaders wore bronze armor. At first, the Mycenaeans fought each other. After they learned about shipbuilding, they outfitted pirate fleets and raided nearby lands. By 1400 B. C., they had replaced the Minoans as the major power of the Aegean world.
After the Trojan War, a series of civil wars broke out. Within 100 years after the Trojan War, most of the Mycenaean fortress-palaces were destroyed. Soon, the Dorians entered Greece and conquered the Mycenaeans. Their iron swords were not as well made as the Mycenaean bronze swords, but were stronger. Thousands of Mycenaeans fled to Ionia.
As a result of this, the Aegean world entered a dark age, which lasted until 800 B. C. It was a time of wandering and killing. Trade ground to a halt. The Aegean people forgot how to write. The skills of fresco painting and metal work disappeared. The Aegean world was cut off from the Middle East, and they had to start a new civilization on their own.
The people started over. Herding and farming had become the main ways of life. Local leaders led small areas. These leaders called themselves kings, but were really chiefs. At first, the borders were constantly changing. In time, the borders became fixed, and each area became a self-governing Hellenistic city-state.
Who was Socrates most well known student?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Socrates ( /ˈsɒkrətiːz/; Greek: Σωκράτης, Ancient Greek pronunciation: [sɔːkrátɛːs], Sōkrátēs; c. 469 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.
Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who also lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. It is Plato's Socrates that also made important and lasting contributions to the fields of epistemology and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains strong in providing a foundation for much western philosophy that followed.
As one recent commentator has put it, Plato, the idealist, offers "an idol, a master figure, for philosophy. A Saint, a prophet of the 'Sun-God', a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic."
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