The Allies at the start of the war in 1939 were: France, Poland, the United Kingdom, the British Commonwealth nations, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Union of South Africa. Later other nations joined, including the Soviet Union.
The U.S., Britain, and the Soviet Union were considered the leaders of the Allies.
Sicily is an Italian island in the Mediterranean Sea. If you look at a map, you'll see that Italy looks like a leg and foot about to kick a football. Sicily looks like the football.
thanks ms. sue i look at the map and u right it look like football that Italy kick. ms. sue i confused on one thing i thought canada no more fight they be independent but king decide to help britain?
Canada was independent. But it was also allied with the United Kingdom (Britain) as part of the British Commonwealth. The Parliament of Canada declared war on Germany in September, 1939.
This information I take from internet and I change wordings around so it make sense to me, after i get better understanding of these paragraphs taken from internet I make the newsletter story about invasion of italy.
Invasion of Italy
Invasion of mainland Italy in September 1943, following successful invasion of Sicily during Italian campaign. Main invasion force land around Salerno on western coast in Operation Avalanche, while two diversion operations took place in Calabria (Operation Baytown) and Taranto (Operation Slapstick).
Operation Baytown September 3rd 1943. British eight army including the British and Canadian troops first troops onto land on the mainland, under General Bernard Montgomery. Opposition to landings light as the Italian units surrendered almost immediately, leaving a single German troop to protect 17 miles of coast. Kesselring the German general and his staff did not believe that the Calabria landings were the main allied attack, the Salerno region or possibly even north of Rome being the more logical points of attack. So he ordered another German general Traugott Herr to pull back from meeting with 8th army and postpone them with skillful destruction of bridges and other road and rail network. Montgomery’s doubts to the operation were proved correct: the eighth army could not tie down German units that refused battle, and the main obstacle to their advance was the land and German destructions of roads and bridges. By September 8th Kesselring had concentrated Von Vietinghof’s 10th army, ready to make a rapid response to any Allied landing.
How many german generals there were? That looks like so many. I thought each country only have one.
and thanks ms. sue explaining to me about british commonwealth, i not know that.
Each country had several generals.
You're welcome, Mohammad.
Before the main invasion on September 8th, the surrender of Italy to the Allies was announced. Italian units stopped combat and the Navy sailed to Allied ports to surrender. However the German forces in Italy were prepared for such a chance and moved to disarm Italian units and take up important defensive positions.
I don't get part that say German forcs moved to disarm Italian units, that mean they step in shoes of italians and fight.
Although Italy fought with Germany against the Allies, most Italian people opposed this alliance. Most Italian people hated Mussolini and Hitler. Germany was sort of the ruler of Italy at this time. When the Italian soldiers refused to fight the Allies, the German soldiers took away the Italians' weapons. Yes, the German troops stepped into the shoes of the Italians and fought against the Allies.
thank you very much ms. sue for explaining so nicely. i be back after eating dinner. thank you very much :) hope you have good dinner too!
You're very welcome, Mohammad. Enjoy your dinner.
I'll be signing off in about 2 hours.
Also, this is our Thanksgiving holiday weekend, so I won't be on Jiskha very much for the next few days.
really? u so lucky ms. sue it a US thanksgiving weekend i think, not same for Canada. aww that alright ms. sue you enjoy your weekend. i try to get everything to in today and if not i try my best myself.
Operation Slapstick – launched on september 9th during which the British 1st airborne were landed at Taranto, and important naval base. Due to Italian surrender the previous day and since few German forces were in the area, the British troops were landed directly into the port from warships rather than carrying out a mixed attack. Confrontation was small and the town and ports were captured almost immediately and quickly protected with few losses.
Operation Avalanche – the main invasion at Salerno – launched on September 9th 1943, and in order to secure surprise, the decision had been taken to attack without previous naval or aerial attack. Planned surprise was however not achieved, as the naval commanders had predicted. As the first wave approached the shore at Paestum a loudspeaker from the landing area proclaimed in English: “Come on in and give up. We have you covered.” The allied troops attacked nonetheless.
What mean by secure? I get mixed up with that word often. Also what these operations? The slapstick and avalanche, just places where they plan to attack? I don't very understand this ; the decision had been taken to attack without previous naval or aerial attack.
In this sentence -- "to secure surprise," "secure" means to guarantee or to be sure of surprise.
Armies use code words for many of their battles. They use these words so that the enemy won't understand where and when the attacks will take place. Avalanche and Slapstick are code words that only our side understands.
Often before an army attacks, the air force bombs the place. If the place is near the ocean, the navy ships also shoot their guns from the water. Only then does the army go in on foot and in tanks to finish the battle.
thank you very much ms. sue.
The Germans had established artillery and machine-gun posts and scattered tanks through the landing zones which made progress difficult, but the beach areas were successfully taken. Around 07:00 a concerted counterattack was made by the 16th panzer division. It caused heavy casualties, but was beaten off with naval gunfire support. Both the British and the Americans made slow progress, and still had a 10 mile gap between them at the end of day one. They linked up by the end of day two and occupied 35-45 miles of coast line to a depth of six or seven miles.
What mean by concerted? Strong?
General clark, general of Americans, was awarded the distinguished service cross, the second highest US award for bravery in combat, for his front-line leadership during this crisis. He was frequently seen in the most forward positions encouraging the troops. However, in the estimate of the historian Carlo D’Este, Clark’s poor planning of the operation caused the crisis in the first place. Clark later blamed the slowness of the Eighth army for the beachhead crisis.
The Salerno battle was also the site of a riot by about 600 men of the British 10th corps, who on September 16 refused assignment to new units as replacements. They had previously understood that they would be returning to their own units from which they had been separated during the fighting in the North African Campaign, mainly because they had been wounded. Eventually the corps commander, McCreery, persuaded most of men to follow their orders. The NCO’s who led the riot were sentenced to death, but were eventually allowed to rejoin units and the sentence was not carried out.
I don't think i need last two paragraphs, they not seem so important, that just what happen after battle.
Yes, "concerted" means strong or concentrated.
I agree that you don't need the last two paragraphs.
thanks very much for helping me today ms. sue i grasp much better understanding of invasion of italy due to you. you very good teacher my favorite on jiskha :)
oh and ms. sue have a good night! i think i post maybe some things about conscription tomorrow if i see you.
You're very welcome, Mohammad. You have a good night, too. :-) I hope I can help you in the next few days.
The book "Unknown Soldiers" by Joseph Garland is a first hand account of the campaign in Italy including the landings at Salerno and Anzio. Garland was a soldier with the American 45th division at the time.