Wind and the surface ocean currents it drives are both strongly influenced by the Fill in the Blank 01, which makes them curve from a straight path as they move over the Earth’s surface. They constantly veer to their Fill in the Blank 02 in the northern hemisphere, and to the other side in the southern hemisphere.
The Coriolis effect (or force) has the following effect: In the process called Fill in the Blank 03, the veering effect increases from the base of the air column downward through the water column, so that the net water motion is about Fill in the Blank 04 degrees to the right or left (depending on hemisphere) of the wind direction. In coastal waters, the added effect of winds blowing parallel to the coast leads to vertical water motions called Fill in the Blank 05, which leads to highly productive areas, and Fill in the Blank 06 which produces coastal regions that are less productive. El Niño is related to the slackening of winds in the Pacific and the lessening of the Fill in the Blank 07 of cold, nutrient-rich waters coming from depth. The name El Niño was given its name by residents of coastal Fill in the Blank 08, where it has a strong effect on the local fishery. The effects on climate, which are evident over at least 1/2 of the Earth, proceed through a cycle that has averaged about Fill in the Blank 09 years long.
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