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August 30, 2014

Homework Help: Hum/205 college level

Posted by Jennifer on Sunday, July 24, 2011 at 3:10pm.

can someone please look over this and tell me what you think?? thanks!


The history of the Western Art is a steeped in religious symbolism; but all art is in one way or another, an extension of the religious urge in humanity. However to some westerners it is often difficult to leave the comfort domain of a familiar religious iconography and venture into a utterly alien. The goal of this paper is to help readers, with fundamental art and basic understanding. The Western and Non-Western cultures













Indian Civilization


Bodhisattva Padmapani (Arties Unknown)

Ancient Indian literature contains many tales and animal stories; one of the most famous collections of the early stories was Jataka, this means “the story of birth”. There were 547 tales that described the lives of Buddha, which passed through before achieving enlightenment. The pancatantra was a group of didactic stories, designed to provide advice about getting on in the world. Buddhism has flourished during the Gupta era, the Gupta monarchs themselves were increasingly attracted to Hinduism. The temples and sculptures of Hindu gods began to appear, and it was contained to proliferate well into the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Muslim kings from Persia and the Cholas vied for power. (Benton 3)
The elegant representation of the Bodhisattva Padmapani is an early example of the use of semiprecious stone inlays, one of most distinctive features of the Nepali and Tibetan sculptures but there are a few that remain today. The sculpture is multicolored stones such as turquoise and carnelian would have filled all the circular depressions in the crown, armlets, and belts. Bodhisattva Padmapani is identified by the lotus flower, that his on his left shoulder. His torso, broad shoulders, long legs and relaxed posture reflect the impact of the Gupta style. This had prevailed in north India from the fourth to the six century. The armlets that are crown derive from contemporaneous artistic practices, which are found in the northeast. During the tenth to the twelfth century, The Nepali traditions are seen in the broad face, full cheekbones, and elegant features, which are different from the smaller and fuller facial features, which are found in Indian art. The eyebrows, eyes and the long line of nose are also typically Nepali. (September 2008)













Islamic Civilization


Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Palace, Granada.

In 1333, and the Arab ruler of Granada, Yusuf I, had gathered craftsmen and labors from throughout al-Andalus to help him create a magnificent palace. But almost sixty years would pass before the country yards, galleries, halls, towers, and balconies of the Alhambra. The Red place would be finished; it got its nickname from, the bricks made of red sandstone in the area. The Alhambra was not entirely a new structure originally it had been in alcazaba, it was used for the military defense of the kingdom of Granada. For almost a hundred years, Arab rulers of the Nasind dynasty, was the last of the Muslim dynasties to rule in Spain, the governed had their lands from this fortress high above the city hall in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Under Yusuf I and his son Muhammad V, The largest admired sections of the Alhambra palace were constructed. Modeled after the earlier Islamic palaces of Cordoba, the Alhambra was a complex of rooms that were clustered around large central courts. The design, as well as the accompanying decoration, was not new at the time, but had followed the traditional Islamic style in architecture. Alhambra’s thick, red brick wall is quite stark with its plainness broken decoration, inlaid wood and intricate stucco, and ever-present water and pleasant gardens.

The Court of Myrtles and the hall of the Ambassadors were constructed. The Court was also known as the Court of the Alberca, because of its large birka that are in the center that is surrounded by plants and marble pavements. Muhammad V. Had added to his father’s masterpiece, and built the Court of the Loins and its surrounding harem (domestic apartments of the ruler’s family), the rawda (cemetery), and the halls. The court of the lions has one hundred twenty-eight marble columns, which are grouped together in threes and fours. Even through religion of Islam does not allow paintings or statues of humans and animals, the twelve stone lion supporting the fountain is a piece of sculpture, that is rare and unusual in Islamic art, because many of the Muslims believe that such representations come close to being idols, which was not allowed.

The opening of the Court of the Lions has several halls, including the halls of two sisters. These rooms are the most beautiful, rooms of the palace the hall is named for matching pieces 0f white marble set in the floor. Verses by the court poet, Ibn al-Zamrak, adorn the walls. The hall’s most impressive feature was its plaster muqarras, was compared stalactites in the crave or even to a honeycomb. At various times of the day, the light plays its many facets, making it look like an illusion suspended overhead. The fragile airy look continues throughout the Alhambra’s courts and halls. The contrasts of light and shade, the delicate appearance of the plaster ceilings, the thin columns and narrow arches all were designed to create such an atmosphere. The color also played a huge part in the decor of the Alhambra. The royal color was used, along with blue, green, and gold. Painters had brushed these hues over the plaster walls and ceilings, and then added special detail, like floral and geometric designs and Arabic calligraphy. Certain words and phrases, such as the motto “there is no conqueror but God”, formed repetitive designs and colorful glazed tiles were arranged in geometric patterns.

The water was used extensively throughout the fountains, fishponds, baths, pools, and canals, as well as the many flowers and bushes. The plumbing was of the luxuries of the palace. While Granada’s ruler, his family, and servants especially enjoyed the delights if the Alhambra, others did also too. The prime minster and other officials, including judges and the chief of the militia, had their offices there. The religious leaders had cared for the on-site mosque, soldiers lived at the garrison, and gardeners, stable hands, and many others who were in need for the efficient operation of the palace, complex also spent much of their time within the palace walls.

Scholars and artisans were always welcomed guests of the rulers, who patronized literature and the arts, especially ceramics, metalworking and textile weaving, and encouraged developments in the sciences, specifically medicine, mathematics, and astronomy. In 1492, after the twenty rulers of the Nasrid line, Granada fell to the Spanish Christians, the Alhambra was taken peacefully by the troops of Ferdinand and Isabel, the Catholic rulers of Spain and the Muslim prince, Boabdil, left Granada, The last Islamic stronghold in Spain for his place of exile in northern Africa. In the 1800s, American author Washington Irving and others polarized the Alhambra in their writings. Today, more than six hundred years after its completion, the Alhambra is the only monumental Naiad building to survive. The Alhambra continues to enchant and captivate many tourists who come from Spain and around the world, to learn about its history.





















Northern Europen


Albrecht Durer Self-Portrait

Albrecht Durer was born in Franconian City of Nuremberg. He was one of the strongest artistic and commercial centers in Europe, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Durer was a painter, draftsman and a writer, but his greatest artistic impact was in the medium of printmaking. He apprenticed with his father, who was a goldsmith, and with a local painter Michael Wolgemut, whose workshop produced woodcut illustrations for books and publications. As an admirer of his compatriot Martin Schongauer, Durer had revolutionized printmaking, elevating it to the next level of an independent art form. He had expanded its tonal and dramatic range, and had provided the imagery with a new conceptual foundation. By the time Durer was thirty, he had completed or begun three of his most famous series of woodcuts on religious subjects: The Apocalypse (1498; 19.13, 18.65.8) the Large Woodcut Passion cycle (ca. 1497-1500). And the life of the Virgin (begun 1500), he also want on to produce independent paintings. Such as the engraving of Adam and Eve (1504; 19.73.1) and small self-contained groups of images, like the so- called Master Engravings featuring Knight, Death, and the Devil (1513; 43.106.2). In his study Saint Jerome (1514), and Melancholia (1514; 43.106.1). Were intended more for connoisseurs and collectors than for popular devotion. Their technical virtuosity, intellectual scope, and psychological depth were unmatched by earlier printed work.

Like any other Northern European artist. He was engaged by the artistic practices and theoretical interests of Italy. He visited the country twice, in 1494 to 1495 and again in 1505 to 1507. While absorbing firsthand some of the great works of the Italian Renaissance, as well as the classical heritage and theoretical writings of the region. The influence of the Venetian color and design can be seen in the Feast of the Rose Garlands. He had developed a new interest in the human form, as demonstrated by his nude and antique studies. The Italian theoretical pursuits also resonated deeply with the artiest. He had written four books of Human Proportion (Vier Bucher von menschlichen Proportion) only his first book was published during his life time (1528), as well as an introductory manual of geometric theory for students (Underweysung der Messung, 1525;125.97D932). This included the first scientific treatment of perspective by a Northern European artist.
Durer’s talent, ambition, and sharp, and wide-range intellect earned him the attention and friendship of, some of the most prominent figures in German society. He had become the official court artist to Holy Roman Emperors. The artist also cast a bold light on his own image through a number of, his own self-portraits, which are drawn, painted and printed. They reveal an increasingly successful and self-assured master, eager to assert his creative genius and inherent nobility. While still marked by a clear-eyed, often foreboding outlook. (Wisse, Jacob, October 2002)

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