February 25, 2017

Homework Help: Philosophy ( Critical Thinking)

Posted by Jean on Saturday, April 30, 2011 at 6:28pm.

1. <21{1[2(24)24]}> The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses (Points : 1)
Jerry with other members of the team
the members of one team with the members of another team
people who are six feet three inches tall for people who are exactly six feet tall
an average for the individuals that make up that average.

2. <11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because (Points : 1)
more students in the morning class may have passed the test than failed the test
some students may have been absent from both classes
some of the students who passed the afternoon test may have received information about the test from morning students
more students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning

3. <11{1[1(19)19]}> All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above? (Points : 1)
Just because Dasha is a sage doesn’t mean that she is always wise and inspirational.
Just because Dasha’s speech provided wisdom and inspiration doesn’t mean that it provided more wisdom than inspiration.
Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.
Just because Dasha provided wisdom and inspiration in a speech doesn’t mean that all sages use speeches to provide wisdom and inspiration.

4. <21{1[1(13)13]}> A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived.
The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it (Points : 1)
assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people
is based on evidence that is statistically impossible
fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has
relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce

5. <11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence (Points : 1)
does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater
implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies
does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home
suggests that Catherine’s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies

6. <21{1[1(01)01]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because (Points : 1)
it doesn’t say which political issues Jessica is interested in
it states that the only purpose of the political science club is to spark an interest in politics
it misuses the word “significantly”
it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club

7. <11{2[3(11)35]}> Some politicians claim to support the environment in speeches they make around the country. However, to get to those speeches they ride in gas guzzling, pollution creating private planes. They therefore clearly don’t believe a word of what they say and are actually making the environmental problem worse.
Which one of the following, if true, would best weaken the argument above? (Points : 1)
Some of the politicians try to hide the fact that they travel by private plane to their speeches around the country.
Most people who hear the politicians’ speeches on the environment are unconvinced by their arguments.
A majority of voters surveyed agree that politicians sometimes make society’s problems worse.
Improvements to the environment brought about through the politicians’ public support of environmental regulations more than offset the damage done to the environment by the politicians’ private planes.

8. <11{2[3(02)26]}> Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true? (Points : 1)
Aron inserted the current batteries in his television remote control two months before he inserted the current batteries in his CD player.
The amount of energy required to power the CD player is not greater than the amount of energy needed to power the television remote control.
Aron has used his television remote control more times than he has used his CD player since inserting the current batteries into each device.
Double A batteries provide less energy than either C batteries or D batteries.

9. <21{2[2(12)36]}> Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument? (Points : 1)
Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue.
Many people who aren’t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers.
Having the time and money to make art doesn’t guarantee an artist commercial success.
Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer.

10. <11{3[1(07)43]}> As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above? (Points : 1)
Some employees of the company were switched into new departments to fill the new positions.
Some employees who quit over dissatisfaction with the reorganization were immediately replaced by new hires.
The new positions were created to respond to a greater demand for company X’s products.
Some employees were laid off as a number of old positions were eliminated in the reorganization.

11. <11{3[1(03)39]}> Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT: (Points : 1)
a difference in the ticket prices of operas X and Y
a difference in the operating expenses of operas X and Y
a difference in the subject matters of operas X and Y
a difference in the merchandise sales associated with operas X and Y

12. <11{4[2(12)56]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint (Points : 1)
ship : sea
cake : recipe
bridge : island
guitar : song

13. <21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra (Points : 1)
skater : rink
teacher : principal
producer : movie
director : cast

14. <11{4[2(06)50]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
gavel : judge (Points : 1)
baton : conductor
symphony : composer
stop sign : driver
ruler : math

15. <11{5[1(01)57]}> Arthur: The solutions to most mystery novels I read are not believable. However, my enjoyment of a mystery novel depends only on its suspenseful mood and colorful characters.
Norton: Roughly 80% of the mystery novels I read have believable solutions, which is good since I do not enjoy mystery novels that don’t have believable solutions.
The speakers above (Points : 1)
agree that most mystery novels do not have believable solutions
agree that a suspenseful mood and colorful characters add to the enjoyment of a mystery novel
disagree on whether a believable solution is required for the enjoyment of a mystery novel
disagree on whether an author’s enjoyment in creating a mystery novel influences whether that novel will have a believable solution

16. <11{5[1(05)61]}> Memmie: The greater the population near a restaurant, the more potential customers it has and the greater chance its popularity will spread through word-of-mouth. O’Sullivans Restaurant just opened in the very densely populated town of Redville, so its chances for success are great.
Sam: But the more people living in an area, the more restaurants there are in that area, so the more competition each one faces. There are twelve other restaurants serving the people of Redville.
Memmie and Sam seem to disagree about whether (Points : 1)
O’Sullivans will fail in its first few months
O’Sullivans will serve a different kind of food than the other restaurants in Redville
the high population of Redville ensures O’Sullivan’s a great chance for success
word-of-mouth about a restaurant can spread in a densely populated town like Redville

17. <7{6[3(02)66]}> In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu.
Based on the information above, it must be true that for some film critics, their feelings about the charisma of the lead character (Points : 1)
is the least important factor they consider when comparing two films
is the most important factor they consider when comparing two films
is not the most important factor they consider when comparing two films
is the only factor they consider when comparing two films

18. <11{6[1(07)71]}> The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price (Points : 1)
will likely increase people’s expectations that the antique is valuable
will guarantee that the antique will not sell at a profit
should be encouraged because it increases the likelihood that antique will be sold
should be discouraged because it lessens a quality that makes that antique desirable

19. <11{6[2(03)67]}> Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in today’s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in today’s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them? (Points : 1)
The monkey, poodle, and horse are the only animals performing in today’s circus exhibition.
No circus animals were prescribe medications this week.
No more than two circus animals have a clean bill of health.
Neither the monkey nor the horse performing in today’s circus exhibition were prescribed medications this week.

20. <11{7[2(03)79]}> Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.
The argument above assumes that (Points : 1)
Johann is looking to double the profits of his lemonade stand
the price increase will likely put Johann out of business
profits from the price increase will not offset the money lost when fewer cups are sold
even if Johann sells more cups at the new price than he did at the old price, he’ll still lose money on the lemonade stand

21. <11{7[3(08)84]}> The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that (Points : 1)
the bill will not pass because a majority of Texas congressmen did not vote for it
the Texas congressmen who voted against the bill were persuaded by someone other than the president to vote the way they did
the president did not try to influence the votes of any congressmen outside of Texas
the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president

22. <21{7[1(04)80]}> A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in more measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network.
The argument above assumes that (Points : 1)
investing in employee training seminars would yield negative results for the company
the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company
the employee training seminars would focus on teaching employees to use the updated computer network
the benefit of the company investing in employee training seminars cannot be measured at all

23. <21{8[1(07)95]}> Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument? (Points : 1)
Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information.
Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today.
While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased.
The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed.

24. <11{8[1(10)98]}> Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with (Points : 1)
convincing people not to overeat
explaining the process of the “downward spiral”
showing how overeating can lead to depression
showing how some processes lead to surprising results

25. <11{8[1(04)92]}> The very large increase in allergies over the last thirty years is due to the great success of immunizations administered over this time period. Since immunizations have nearly eliminated life-threatening diseases such as polio, the human immune system increasingly targets other environmental substances in order to keep working properly. Allergy symptoms such as runny nose and itchy eyes result when the immune system attacks pollen that is breathed in from the air.
Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage above? (Points : 1)
Immunizations often have surprising side effects.
Immunizations have been very successful in eliminating life-threatening diseases.
Viruses that once caused polio now cause allergies.
The use of immunizations has led to an increase in allergies.

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