The first one is correct, but the other two are incorrect.
Is # 2, C?
Is #3, B?
Also these two:
4. (Landing in New England) caused much disappointment among the Pilgrims.
A. infinitive phrase
B. gerund phrase
C. prepositional phrase
D. appositive phrase
I think it's B?
5. Today, homes (on Cape Cod) still display this famous "weathered" look.
A. prepositional phrase
B. appositive phrase
C. participial phrase
D. gerund phrase
I think it's A?
Re your first set of sentences:
1 is A (verb form starting with "to")
2 is A (verb form ending in -ing and whole phrase is MODIFYING a noun -- in this case the subject)
3 is B (same explanation as above)
present participles = verb forms ending in -ing
past participles = verb forms ending in -ed or whatever the past tense form is
Participial phrases are adjectives and modify nouns or pronouns.
gerunds = verb forms ending in -ing; these words or phrases act as NOUNS in a sentence [This is why #4 is correct. Ask yourself, "WHAT caused much disappointment...?"
Okay thanks! I understand now.
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