Friday
April 18, 2014

Homework Help: SCI 275

Posted by Mary on Saturday, April 2, 2011 at 4:43pm.

. Final Project: Mitigation Strategies and Solutions

• Resource: Appendix A
• Use the topic you chose for the Capstone Discussion Question or choose another topic you have learned about over the past 8 weeks.
• Focus on a specific environmental problem in your topic. Your topic, for example, could be atmospheric issues, and your problem could be global warming.
• Write a 1,750- to 2,100-word paper that formulates a mitigation plan for your specific environmental problem. Include the following:

o Detailed description of the problem
o Nonliving and living factors that contribute to or are affected by the problem
o Positive or negative human effects
o Evaluation of current sustainability strategies and solutions
o Your plan to reach sustainability; see Appendix F
o Benefits and challenges of your plan
o Required government, societal, and global support

• Include at least four outside sources. Two of the sources must be peer-reviewed. If you need assistance with identifying a peer-reviewed article, review Appendix G.
• Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.


I don't think I wrote a good essay because I got tired of my subject and kinda gave up. I have not read it nor have I proofread it. All I want is your honest opinion and what I should do to make it better.

Mitigation Strategies and Solutions

Society depends on energy for everyday use, therefore we must conserve our current supply or to use renewable resources so that our natural resources will be available for future generations. Every day the world uses 320 billion kilowatt-hours of energy- equivalent to each person burning 22 light bulbs nonstop, and over the next century demand may increase threefold (Berg & Hager, 2007). Using fossil fuels to meet our energy needs impacts the environment in many negative ways. For an example, burning oil and natural gas produces carbon dioxide which contributed to global warming. Another reason not to use nonrenewable energy sources is that we have a limited amount. The population is growing and as a result we are increasingly using nonrenewable energy sources. We need to focus on using renewable resources such as wind power.
Wind energy is one of the oldest energy resources used by humans (Deal, 2010). Humans have used the wind to carry them across the seas and to pump water from underground aquifers using wind mills. Wind mills were used not only to pump water, but also sawing logs into lumber, grinding grain, and generating electricity. According to Walter, windmills supplied small amounts of electricity to charge batteries that could power electric lamps for light and simple radios for several hours a day (Deal, 2010). However, with the growing population and advances of modern technology we consume more energy than ever before. As a result, windmills were eventually removed and electric power lines were installed.
Today, wind power is making a comeback because we are seeing oil shortages, higher cost for fossil fuels, and the increasing concern of emissions from fossil fuels. Unlike fossil and nuclear fuels wind is widely available and is familiar element to the environment. Changes have been made to windmills they are now called wind turbines and they are made of metal and fiberglass instead of wood. They are bigger, quieter, sleeker, and more powerful than ever before. A typical horizontal wind machine stands as tall as a 20-story building and has three blades that span 200 feet across (U.S. Energy Information Administration, n.d.). Wind turbines depend on the motion of air currents to turn the propeller to convert wind energy into mechanical energy. The question now is, “Where do you put wind turbines?”
Researchers along with meteorologists and engineers identify appropriate sites where wind currents are strong enough. Once the sites have been identified areas will reveal common characteristics, including exposed terrain, and colliding air masses (Pasqualetti, 2004). Farmers are allowing wind turbines to be placed on their land and in return they are getting loyalties yearly of more than 2,000 per turbine. This new income could save farmers from bankruptcy and put them on a better financial track. Wind is a clean energy source and has fewer environmental impacts than using other energy sources; however they may have drawbacks.
Some of the alleged drawbacks of using turbines to generate electricity include noise and vibration, has negative effects on human health, and harms wildlife. Dr. Albert Aniel, a Rumford physician, stated he was concerned with the injurious effects of the audible sounds and low frequency noise of wind turbines (Deal, 2010). When wind causes the blades of wind turbines moves it produces sound and vibrations that are causing concern about possible health effects. Aerodynamic noise is present at all frequencies, which is sound produced by the rotation of the turbines blade though the air. A study in the United Kingdom showed only four out of 130 wind farms had problems with aerodynamic modulation and three of these have been solved (Moorhouse, Hayes, Hunerbein, Piper, & Adams, 2007). According to Dr. Nina Pierpont, people who live near turbines may experience Wind Turbine Syndrome which includes headaches, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness, and ringing in the ears. However, The American Wind Energy Association and Canadian Wind Energy Association concludes that sound from the wind turbines does not pose a risk of hearing loss or any other adverse health effects in humans (McMurty, Hanning, Harrison, Harrington, Horner, James, Jeffery, Krogh, Nissenbaum, & White, n.d.). Another issue with wind turbines is they are so tall that birds are flying into them. A study included 7,000 turbines over 80 square miles and involved 13 species of birds including hawks, eagles, falcons, and vultures. At the end of the study period they found nearly 200 dead birds. As a result, regulations are now in place to insulate jumper wires, cover metal parts of insulators, and paint turbine blades bright colors, and install sonic whistles on towers that would ward off birds.
The living and nonliving factors affected by using fossil fuels are life’s are lost, harms the environment, and injures or kills wildlife. On April 20, 2010 we experienced the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. The explosion killed 11 men and injured 17. Human life was not the only life taken as of November 2, 6,814 dead animals had been collected. We will continue to see the devastation this oil spill has caused for many years to come. Isn’t it time to reduce our dependence on oil? Oil spills are not the only problem with using nonrenewable resources. Coal mining accidents in China claimed an average of 5,968 lives per year between 1991 and 2000 (Chinamining, 2010). Coal, the most abundant fossil fuel destroys land and pollutes water and the air. There are two types of coal mining: surface and subsurface mines. Surface mining, the most environmental damaging, is the extraction of mineral and energy resources near the Earth’s surface by removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata (Berg & Hager, 2007). Subsurface mining is the extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground. Surface mining leaves huge open pits or trenches. Acid, toxic minerals, and topsoil are washed away by erosion, which eventually pollutes streams. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide which causes a greenhouse effect. Oil and natural gas account for over 63 percent of the energy in the United States (Berg & Hager, 2007). Burning of oil and natural gas produces carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming. Mining and drilling for these resources costs lives but also damages our environment including wildlife.
The negative effects cause by drilling or mining for nonrenewable resources includes destroying the land in which we live off of. The town I grew up in was Petrolia, Texas a small town 30 miles from the city. The town had one grocery store, diner, and a school. The school was all together kindergarten classes all the way up to high school all on one piece of land. In this town everyone knew everyone. You couldn’t go into the grocery store without having to say hi to eight or more people. Once I graduated I moved into the city to get a job and start my grown-up life. About a year ago I went back to the town I grew up in to find in destroyed by oil derricks. What was once a happy town now was ghost town full of oil derricks. Some of the residents chose not to leave, including my parents, while most of them chose to move. Drilling for oil destroys land and offshore drilling could lead to a disastrous oil spill. Mining strips the land making it hard for vegetation to grow back plus acid mine drainage pollutes water which endangers wildlife.
The current sustainability strategies and solutions are research renewable resource systems, nonrenewable resource systems, long-term chemical and biological impacts, land use, economic and human behavior, and information and decision making. The EPA conducted research to define measures of sustainable renewable resources, improve their understanding of ecosystem process, and developed and applied advanced system models for decision making. Second strategy, seeks to promote sustainable management of nonrenewable resources and support renewable resources. Third strategy, develop alternate chemicals and new industrial processes. Forth strategy, research building design to make sure they are sustainable and efficient. Fifth strategy is to research economics and behavioral science. Sixth strategy, establish infrastructure of sustainability and monitor environmental issues.
My plan to reach sustainability and strategies and solutions is to research renewable energy resources by reading peer reviewed articles, books, and Web sites which will take three weeks. Next, I will develop a PowerPoint presentation educating the public on the negative effects of nonrenewable resources and the positive and negative effects of renewable resources. The presentation should only take between two to four weeks. Next, I will meet with the Energy Alliance show them my presentation and hopefully they will give me the okay to talk to the next community that is debating using renewable energy resources. The timeline for that is one to six months. Showing the community the positive as well as the negative effects wind energy could have will help the community decide if they want a turbine within two times the turbines height or 1,000 feet away from any resident or public place.
The challenges of my plan will be making my presentation attractive and informing enough to get The Energy Alliance to allow me to represent them. Another challenge will be making sure my presentation is fair to both sides showing the pros and cons of both nonrenewable energy sources and renewable energy sources. The benefits of my plan will inform the community and hopefully make them walk away with a sense of helping the environment by installing turbines. My plan requires the support of government by allowing me to represent organizations and research for renewable resources. My plan requires the support of the society because they are the ones voting to install turbines within 1,000 feet from their homes. My plan also requires global support because they are continuing to research renewable energy resources.
There are pros and cons of nonrenewable energy resources as well as renewable energy resources. The population is growing at an exponential rate therefore the dependence on nonrenewable resources increase. Instead of using fossil fuels to power our everyday lives we need to focus on a long term solution which is wind power. Using wind power could help us escape dependence on fossil fuels, save lives, and provide energy without any long-term effect. What is going to happen when we run out of fossil fuels? Think about how that would affect your everyday life. Wind is all around us and we will never run out of wind.

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