I'll give you the text of the lessons I have for writing arguments. Then you can see which information helps you (and discard the rest).
Lesson 1 - Formal argument (Aristotle's terminology)
Exordium (claim is the last sentence in this section) – draw reader into your position; build common ground; establish tone and style; establish “credentials;” clarify why this topic and your position are important; build ethos
Narratio (data; background) – tell the story behind the argument; give necessary background information; clarify the issue; define the issue in terms favorable to your stance
Propositio (Warrant) – state your central position carefully and clearly; perhaps set the stage for important sub-points
Refutatio (Rebuttal) – stating the opposition’s viewpoint(s) and explaining why they are wrong
Confirmatio (Backing) – develop and support your own position/stance; use traditional thesis/ support format (including examples, facts, statistics to support your claim); avoid logical fallacies; argue from authority, definition, analogy, cause/effect, value, purpose; use logos; rank supporting points
Digressio – optional; touching or entertaining anecdote; brief; build pathos or ethos
Peroratio – conclusion; review of main points in your favor; reference to position statement in intro; plea for action; end strongly, with conviction
Other possible patterns of organization: You may or may not care about these.
~~Refute strongest opposition point
~~State own case
~~Confirm own position
~~Refute weaker opposition point
~~Own proposition as open-ended question
~~Examine and refute opposition
~~Examine and confirm own position
~~Offer rival proposition
~~Offer own position
~~Confirm own position
There might be ideas in here that'll be useful:
And this is the BEST website I believe to help you with all this:
Be sure to click on Read More for each section.
Now ... between what your teacher has taught you and all the information above, you should be able to plan out your whole paper.
And here are the the instructions I give every student, no matter what type of paper he/she is writing:
DON'T start any paper's first draft by writing the introduction! How can you introduce a paper that you haven't written yet?
Follow the writing process, whether you're writing for science, history, English, or whatever:
Prewriting: Brainstorm, research, plan, outline, thesis statement
Writing: Write first draft by starting with section II of your outline; write the introduction after the body of the paper is written; write the conclusion last.
Polishing: Revise, concentrating first on the body of the paper, then the intro, then the concl (revision = making sure ideas are logical and sequential and support your thesis); proofread (spelling, grammar, usage, etc.)
Do you have a thesis yet? Have you done your brainstorming (and maybe research) yet? Have you written an outline?
Check in the Essay & Research Paper Level.
Thank you for all this!
I have no brainstorming done yet, but I guess that's how I'll start...and then start with the body paragraphs.
Thank you, I'll let you see the firs draft once it's written.
OK -- just let me know! =)
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