Wednesday
August 27, 2014

Homework Help: PHI103: Informal Logic

Posted by Tameika on Friday, September 17, 2010 at 7:01pm.

1. <21{7[1(07)]}> Cathy owes six overdue movies to her local video store. Since each of Cathy’s overdue videos is a comedy, only comedies are currently overdue at Cathy’s local video store.
Which one of the following premises, if added to the statements above, would allow the conclusion to be valid? (Points : 1)
Cathy’s local video store is the only video store she rents videos from.
Cathy’s local video store rents other kinds of movies besides comedies.
Cathy is the only person who owes overdue videos to her local video store.
Cathy does not owe overdue movies to any video store besides her local video store.


2. <21{4[3(08)]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
alphabet : letters (Points : 1)
theory : doubts
table : chairs
orchestra : instruments
book : writers


3. <21{8[1(07)]}> Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument? (Points : 1)
Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information.
Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today.
While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased.
The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed.


4. <21{7[1(04)]}> A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in more measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network.
The argument above assumes that (Points : 1)
investing in employee training seminars would yield negative results for the company
the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company
the employee training seminars would focus on teaching employees to use the updated computer network
the benefit of the company investing in employee training seminars cannot be measured at all


5. <21{3[2(08)]}> Surveys show that people who use calorie information to decide which foods to eat consume on average 100 calories less than they would if they didn’t check calorie information before eating. Strangely though, people who use calorie information in this way weigh more on average than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
Which one of the following, if true, best explains the surprising statistic stated above? (Points : 1)
There are fewer people who check calorie information before eating than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
People who usually check calorie information before eating consume more calories if they stop checking.
Some people who check calorie information before eating don’t consume any fewer calories than they would if they didn’t check.
People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating.


6. <21{1[1(01)]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because (Points : 1)
it doesn’t say which political issues Jessica is interested in
it states that the only purpose of the political science club is to spark an interest in politics
it misuses the word “significantly”
it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club


7. <21{3[2(02)]}> When Sherry stopped freelancing at home and took a full-time office job, her salary doubled. However, the money she had available to spend above and beyond her monthly expenses increased only slightly.
Which one of the following, if true, best explains the difference between the large increase in Sherry’s salary and the small increase in her spending money? (Points : 1)
Sherry received a signing bonus when she took her new job.
Sherry continues to pick up occasional freelance projects which she works on during free nights and weekends.
Sherry now has wardrobe, transportation, and child care expenses that she didn’t have when she worked from home.
As a new employee, Sherry is required to attend employee training workshops three days a month.


8. <21{4[3(02)]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra (Points : 1)
skater : rink
teacher : principal
producer : movie
director : cast


9. <21{1[2(24)]}> The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses (Points : 1)
Jerry with other members of the team
the members of one team with the members of another team
people who are six feet three inches tall for people who are exactly six feet tall
an average for the individuals that make up that average.


10. <21{8[3(08)]}> Economists continue to measure our country’s economic well being based solely on its Gross Domestic Product, or GDP. However, GDP measures only products and services bought and sold, with no regard with whether these money-generating transactions are positive or negative. For example, when natural disasters such as hurricanes strike, the hundreds of millions of dollars spent for recovery and rebuilding efforts count toward GDP, thus making the economy look better. On the other hand, activities that contribute to society’s well-being but that don’t involve money, such as childrearing by stay-at-home parents, aren’t reflected in GDP’s measure of the country’s economic health.
Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage above? (Points : 1)
GDP does not accurately measure the true economic well being of the country.
GDP does not accurately report the amount of money spent in the aftermath of natural disasters such as hurricanes.
Economists continue to use GDP to measure the country’s economic well being.
Recovery from natural disasters often requires hundreds of millions of dollars in government aid.


11. <21{2[2(06)]}> Bowl More Lanes ran out of bowling lanes last Saturday and provided lanes for a league competition that night. Since there will not be a league competition at Bowl More on Monday, the bowling alley won’t run out of lanes on Monday.
Which one of the following, if true, best supports the conclusion above? (Points : 1)
League competitions were also held at Bowl More Lanes on Sunday but the bowling alley did not run out of the lanes on that day.
League competitions held at Bowl More Lanes take up many more lanes than the normal group of unscheduled individual bowlers who bowl at the alley.
League competitions can be scheduled to take place at Bowl More Lanes up to one day before the day of the competition.
Bowl More Lanes often schedules children’s birthday bowling parties for Monday afternoons.


12. <21{6[3(08)]}> Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions? (Points : 1)
It is useless to try to treat obesity or alcohol addiction through drugs.
All drugs, if taken at too high a dosage, pose the risk that the people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects.
Drugs that affect pleasure centers in the brain are often taken at dosages considered to be too high.


13. <21{1[1(07)]}> Many are concerned that playing violent games may lead to violent behavior. However, statistics show that violent behavior in children has declined significantly at the same time that video game sales have skyrocketed. It is therefore clear that there is no relationship between video games and violence.
The reasoning above is flawed because the author of the passage (Points : 1)
doesn’t distinguish between different levels of violent behavior
assumes that all nonviolent children do not play video games
faults video games for a situation that could have other causes
uses evidence about children to dismiss a concern concerning the whole population


14. <21{2[1(01)]}> The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? (Points : 1)
Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.
Not all professors at Professor Hathaway’s university knew that he was conducting research into the uses of solar power.
Officials at Professor Hathaway’s university have refused requests to make Professor Hathaway’s research public.
Researchers at other universities are conducting research into the potential applications of solar power.


15. <21{1[1(13)]}> A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived.
The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it (Points : 1)
assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people
is based on evidence that is statistically impossible
fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has
relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce


16. <21{2[2(12)]}> Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument? (Points : 1)
Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue.
Many people who aren’t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers.
Having the time and money to make art doesn’t guarantee an artist commercial success.
Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer.


17. <21{6[1(07)]}> The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price (Points : 1)
will likely increase people’s expectations that the antique is valuable
will guarantee that the antique will not sell at a profit
should be encouraged because it increases the likelihood that antique will be sold
should be discouraged because it lessens a quality that makes that antique desirable


18. <21{8[2(09)]}> Movie theaters get their largest return on investment not from ticket sales, but from concession stand items such as popcorn and soda. If the majority of movie goers do not buy at least one item from the concession stand, a movie theater runs the risk of losing money. Especially troubling to theater owners is the recent trend throughout society toward healthful eating.
Which one of the following best expresses the main point the author is leading toward in the passage above? (Points : 1)
Movie theaters should stop selling food at concession stands in order to accommodate society’s trend toward healthful eating.
If the majority of movie goers do not buy popcorn and soda, most movie theaters will go out of business.
Movie theaters lose money on ticket sales, but more than make up for it in sales of concession stand items.
Societal eating habits may affect the profitability of movie theaters.


19. <21{1[5(03)]}> Candidate A has received 5,000 donations of $10 each from state citizens, while candidate B has received one donation of $50,000 from a wealthy state citizen. The candidates have not received any other money for their campaigns. Since the candidates have received an equal amount of campaign funding, they share equal support among the citizens of their state.
The argument above is suspect because the author (Points : 1)
miscalculates the campaign funding received by each candidate
ignores the popularity of the candidates among people of other states
relies on financial figures that are impossible to verify
ignores the large difference in the number of state citizens who donated money to each candidate


20. <21{4[1(10)]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight (Points : 1)
dry : wet
feather : scale
hot : temperature
color : size


21. <21{1[6(22)]}> Animal rights activist: The city’s decision to put all of its stray cats in animal shelters is simply wrong. These cute, cuddly creatures will be sad and lonely sitting in the dank dark shelter when they could be roaming freely and joyously throughout the neighborhood.
The argument above lacks persuasiveness because it (Points : 1)
assumes unfairly that being confined to a dank dark shelter will make the cats unhappy
doesn't prove that the cats were a menace to the city while being allowed to roam free
appeals to the listener’s emotions instead of addressing the reasons for the city’s decision
provides no evidence that all of the stray cats are in fact cute and cuddly


22. <21{5[2(02)]}> Lawyer: My client, television commentator Jonas Cassell, was fired by the network that employed him for criticizing one of the network’s major sponsors. However, Cassell’s comments were said off the record at a private party, and only became public because they were caught on a camera phone and posted on the Internet. Since the comments were not made on the air, the firing clearly violates my client’s right to free speech.
Opposing lawyer: Of course Cassell has the right to criticize a sponsor of his network at a private party, but the network’s executives also have the right to fire a television commentator who was caught expressing views they consider harmful to the network.
The lawyers disagree over whether (Points : 1)
Cassell criticized a sponsor
the network was justified in firing Cassell
Cassell exercised his right to free speech when criticizing the sponsor
both individuals and companies are guaranteed the right to free speech


23. <21{6[1(01)]}> Arthur: The solutions to most mystery novels I read are not believable. However, my enjoyment of a mystery novel depends only on its suspenseful mood and colorful characters.
Norton: Roughly 80% of the mystery novels I read have believable solutions, which is good since I do not enjoy mystery novels that don’t have believable solutions.
Which one of the following can be inferred from the speakers’ statements above? (Points : 1)
Arthur does not enjoy mystery novels with believable solutions.
Norton enjoys most mystery novels he reads.
Arthur and Norton have not read any of the same mystery novels.
Norton does not enjoy some novels he reads.


24. <21{7[3(02)]}> Father: Information collected on elementary school children have indicated that for the most part, the more cavities children have, the better they are at math. Since I want my daughter to improve her math skills, I now make sure she eats candy with every meal.
In adopting the strategy described above, the father necessarily believes that (Points : 1)
statistics are not very reliable
eating candy will help his daughter improve in areas other than math
eating candy causes cavities
people with cavities are more likely to enjoy candy



25. <21{5[1(03)]}> Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points? (Points : 1)
Barney is likely to win his case against Pinetree Café.
Barney’s lawsuit against Pinetree Café is unwarranted.
Many unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country.
The legal system will soon be unable to administer justice to people who deserve it.

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