posted by Amber on .
describe how something is learned using classical conditioning. Be sure to identify the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, and the conditioned response. For the second example you will use the theory of operant conditioning. For your third example you will use observational learning. Be sure to identify in your example the Schedules of Reinforcement.
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Could you please help me by rephrasing what it is asking me to do? Thank you.
Possibly this information will give you a start.
Classical conditioning is characterized by several factors.
I. The key relationship is associating antecedent events.
II. It originates with reflexive behavior. The behavior is "built in."
III. Classical conditioning is essentially a process of stimulus substitution. The response essentially remains the same.
IV. The response is elicited, since the behavior is reflexive.
Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning was started by Skinner and his box. In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning has some specific qualities.
I. Consequences to responses are the key relationship.
II. Emitted responses are voluntary rather than reflexive.
III. Response substitution occurs -- unreinforced responses go to extinction, while reinforced responses become stronger. Essentially operant conditioning is response contingent reinforcement.
In classical conditioning, the unconditoned stimulus (US) is one which reflexively causes a response. One example is putting something into your mouth causes salivation. In this case the unconditioned response (UR) is the response to a US presented alone, the salivation.
A conditioned stimulus (CS) originally has little or no effect. Only when the CS is repeatedly paired with a US (or previously learned CS) will it become a CS. A good example is the sound of a cellophane wrapper being opened. Originally it has little or no effect. However, after being repeatedly paired with eating candy or other foods, it alone will produce the conditioned response. The conditioned response (CR) is one given to the CS when presented alone.
Reinforcement has different effects depending on the schedule of reinforcement.
I. Continuous (100%) reinforcement (Q student, p. 294) means that the organism is reinforced for every desired response. This schedule provides quickest learning, but it is the quickest to go to extinction
II. Partial reinforcement is slower to learn, but it takes longer to go to extinction.
A. Fixed Ratio (FR) involves reinforcing (SR) in a direct ratio to number of responses (Rs), but not every R. It leads to a high R rate (piecework, commission examples).
B. Fixed Interval (FI) involves SR at end of specified period for a minimum R. Regardless of how many Rs give over minimum, only gets same SR at the end of interval. Typically has lower initial R rate but high R rate near the end of each interval. It involves a known deadline (term paper, exams, Xmas examples).
C. Random, variable interval (VI) or variable ratio (VR) involve receiving SR at unpredictable times. Although the experimenter may be using either VI or VR, to the subject it appears to be random. Although organism cannot predict when SR will come, expects it to come. This leads to high R rate and 1:210 ratio between learning trials and extinction. (Compare with instructor's "x" responses.) (discipline, tantrum, gambling, superstition, "shark god," baseball examples).