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social studies: psychology

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Which is the best example of a conditioned response?
A. a gun-shy dog cowers when he sees a shotgun
B. a child flinches when a balloon bursts a foot from her face
C. a snail withdraws into its shell when someone pokes a stick at it
D. a dog perks up its ears and turns toward the source of an unexpected sound

(please include a very brief explanation why)

  • social studies: psychology -

    A conditioned response is one that occurs without regard to the original conditioned stimulus. It is now a learned behavior. A. a gun-shy dog cowers when he sees a shotgun would be the best answer because the dog is reacting to the gun in anticipation of it doing something that scares fire, perhaps.
    b. this is a response that is not learned or CONDITIONED. it is an involuntary response to a startling situation, and would not be answer.
    c. again, this is an involuntary reflexive behavior, not a learned one
    d. normal response as dog attends to a sound and this would not qualify

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