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October 31, 2014

Homework Help: eth 125

Posted by brandi on Tuesday, April 20, 2010 at 12:14pm.

I have rewrote this paper 3 times my fellow classmate keeps telling me it is not in APA format. Can someone please point out what needs to be fixed. I am completely confused now and ready to give up. Your help would be wonderful.
Here is the paper...

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination: African Americans

African Americans make up approximately 15% of the United States population. This group evolved from slaves that were taken from various parts of the African continent and brought to the United States. African Americans were enslaved in the United States and officially gained freedom as a people in 1863 with the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by then President Abraham Lincoln.
Before, during, and after slavery, African Americans faced prejudice, segregation, as well as racism. When they first arrived on the shores of the colonies now known as the United States, the African Americans were segregated from everyone else and kept in holding cells and then on plantations. Prejudice and racism were automatic because they were seen as sub-human beasts and savages of sorts.
African Americans were and still are effected by the dual labor market. The employment market that is geared towards African Americans as a majority has always been packed with low-paying jobs with little to no chance of advancement. African Americans often perform or are expected to perform unskilled labor now referred to as blue collar jobs.
Environmental justice issues have plagued African Americans in the past and continue to do so today. In the past century, factories emitting toxic fumes and hazardous waste were positioned near large African American sections of major cities as well as small towns inhabited by mostly African Americans. Today, in areas of Louisiana along the Mississippi River known as “Cancer Alley”, petroleum and chemical manufacturing plans spew fumes and release carcinogenic chemicals near the water supplies of African Americans. There has long been controversy over this modern issue however no other ethnic or racial group has the desire to have these companies relocate factories near their living areas.
African Americans have participated in affirmative action since the very beginning, in fact, affirmative action was implemented in the United States largely for the benefit of this group. Affirmative action makes a valiant attempt to make up for past and current discrimination against a certain group and makes jobs and opportunities that members of a certain group would not normally be considered for largely accessible for members of minority groups.
African Americans were and still are victims of relining. Health insurance, mortgages, and home improvement loans have and in some cases still are denied to residents of certain residential areas, often portioned out or “redlined” by zip code. In this practice, a red line is literally drawn on a map around areas that banks and other institutions consider undesirable. Banks consider residents in and of this area high risk companies and properties within this area unworthy of their investment. This silent practice still occurs near inner city neighborhoods inhabited by African Americans and other minorities.
Forms of double jeopardy are aimed at African Americans. One great example is when African American felons who have served time, completed probation and parole sentences, and paid full restitution are banned from voting for a life time. This practice punishes the offender twice, once by serving a sentence of various sorts and then by loosing voting priveledges. African American women also face a type of double jeopardy in corporate America because they are a double minority. After shattering corporate America’s glass ceilings barring women from advancing, African American women are subjected to yet another glass ceiling because of race.
Institutional discrimination against African Americans exists in public offices, colleges and universities, as well as corporate America. Factors such as entrance requirements, hiring practices, as well as structural policies keep the amount of African Americans in these institutions at a minimum. Systematic and structural policies continue to keep racial and ethnic groups, such as African Americans, at a disadvantage.
The glass ceiling, glass walls, and glass escalators all have an ill affect on African Americans in all areas of corporate America. There are advancement limits, though unspoken, that African Americans are not able to go past. The majority of African Americans is much more qualified than their White counterparts but will reach the advancement levels that Whites and other groups will.
I identify with both mainstream United States culture and African American culture equally. I have been personally subjected to many of the unfair practices mentioned above however, I have noticed a large change in the past few years that allows me to better identify as an American. Ceilings are being shattered, invisible lines drawn in the sand are being kicked through, and affirmative action is allowing member of the African American race to take leaps and bounds.




References/Works Cited

Rajan, S. (2003, Aug) "A Modified Version of Double Jeopardy -- Rehabilitated African-American Felons Barred From the Voting Box" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA Online <.PDF> Retrieved 2008-09-06 from

Cokorinos, Lee. 2003. The Assault on Diversity: An Organized Challenge to Racial and Gender Justice. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Sturm, S. Guinier, L. (2001). The Future of Affirmative Action. Boston Review. January 2001.

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