Posted by **bren** on Tuesday, December 8, 2009 at 4:30pm.

21. Payne (2001) gave participants a computerized task in which they first see a

face and then a picture of either a gun or a tool. The task was to press one button

if it was a tool and a different one if it was a gun. Unknown to the participants

while they were doing the study, the faces served as a “prime”

(something that starts you thinking a particular way) and half the time were of a

black person and half the time of a white person. Table 2–8 shows the means

and standard deviations for reaction times (time to decide if the picture is of a

gun or a tool) after either a black or white prime. (In Experiment 2, participants

were told to decide as fast as possible.) Explain the results to a person who has

never had a course in statistics. (Be sure to explain some specific numbers as

well as the general principle of the mean and standard deviation.)

8 Mean Reaction Times (in Milliseconds) in Identifying

Guns and Tools in Experiments 1 and 2

Prime

Black White

Target M SD M SD

Experiment 1

Gun 423 64 441 73

Tool 454 57 446 60

Experiment 2

Gun 299 28 295 31

Tool 307 29 304 29

- statistics -
**PsyDAG**, Wednesday, December 9, 2009 at 1:38pm
Since you don't indicate what test(s) you are using, it is harder to explain.

Is the variation in means or standard deviations significant or due to chance? That would be a good starting point.

The teacher wants to know if you understand what is happening. If you can explain something clearly to others, this indicates that you understand. Do you?

I hope this helps.

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