posted by Christopher .
A scientist needs to take a picture of the well-ordered arrangements of the atoms and molecules within a substance. What instrument would be best for a scientist to use?
X-ray photography? "to take a picture" implies some sort of camera, wouldn't it?
X-ray crystallography, when the arrangement is well-ordered. There will be scattering in certain directions only, and the scattering pattern can be used with mathematical procedures to deduce the molecular and atomic arrangement in three dimeneions.
There are also new methods of tunneling scanning electron microscopy for imaging surface atomic patterns directly.