February 27, 2017

Homework Help: psychology

Posted by shawn on Friday, March 13, 2009 at 8:00am.

1. The experimental rats were being raised in separate environments. One group lived in the traditional cage in a quiet, but well lighted room. They were supplied with plenty of food and water. The second group inhabited "Rat Disney Land." There were colorful toys, exercise wheels, and mirrors. The experimenters talked to the rats in the second group and demonstrated concern. Based on the results of previous research the researchers expected __________________. 
A. The rats in the first group to exhibit depression.
B. The rats in the second group to become hyperactive and unable to focus on a task.
C. The rats in the second group to make a higher score on an intelligence test.
D. The rats in the first group to make a higher score on a test of intelligence.
2. Computer testing has introduced the possibility of _______________. 
A. Improved test validity
B. Improved test reliability
C. Lower test costs
D. Individualized, adaptive testing
3. If you give an incorrect answer to a question on an adaptive test, the next question will be _________________. 
A. Easier
B. Harder
C. A repetition of the missed question
D. Deleted
4. Things had not gone right for Allen all day. He seemed to make one error after another and he could feel himself physically shaking as he selected the last piece of glass for the large stain glass window. "I need to take a break. I am pushing too hard." When Allen sensed his physical need for a break he was aware that 
A. He was about to make a mistake.
B. His body was not in homeostasis.
C. He had been rushing too fast.
D. He was hungry.
5. Families traveling with young children often make many stops as a result of 
A. Primary drives
B. Secondary drives
C. Incentives
D. Cognitive needs
6. As Marcia took her place in the classroom on the first day of class a familiar feeling surged from inside of her. She found herself "scoping out the competition," considering topics for the "best in the class" paper, and listening for an opportunity to add to class discussion on the first day. According to drive-reduction theory Marcia 
A. Will experience reduction in her competitive drive if she does well on the first exam
B. is presenting a secondary drive to compete
C. will establish a homeostatic condition and be less competitive as the class progresses
D. is presenting a primary drive to compete
7. "I just can't make myself study ahead for a test. I work better under pressure. Perhaps it is the fear associated with waiting until the last minute that gets me going." This approach to motivation is best explain by 
A. Incentive approaches
B. Drive-reduction approaches
C. Arousal approaches
D. Cognitive approaches
8. Some children require a "carrot on a stick" to get them to clean their room, behave well in public places, or make good grades. This suggests that 
A. The incentive approach pulls the child toward the goal
B. The drive-reduction approach guides the child to re-establish homeostasis
C. All behavior is control by outside rewards
D. External goals can explain human behavior
9. Neal complained, "I hate this job, but the pay is good and the working conditions are outstanding." Neal is motivated to continue in a job he does not enjoy because 
A. Of primary drives
B. Of secondary drives
C. The instinct to survive is strong
D. The incentives are powerful
10. Jake has broken several school records in track and sees himself as a candidate for the Olympic Games, perhaps a gold metal winner. He dedicates extraordinary amounts of time to practice and conditioning. His strong motivation might well be explained by 
A. Drive reduction approaches to motivation
B. Incentive approaches to motivation
C. Arousal approaches to motivation
D. Cognitive approaches to motivation
11. "Honey, will you clean the garage this afternoon?" she asked. "I'll do it for a kiss," her husband responded. Her husband is informing her that 
A. Only a kiss will reduce his primary drive.
B. He needs an extrinsic motivation in order to clean the garage.
C. Cleaning the garage is not one of his primary instincts.
D. Garage cleaning is not related to his levels of arousal.
12. Angelo worked long hours to establish a food bank on the east side of town. Although he had a full time job during the day in order to support his family, he donated many evenings and weekends to meeting the needs of the less fortunate. Angelo's efforts stemmed from 
A. An intrinsic motivation
B. Extrinsic motivation
C. Incentives offered
D. His need to reduce arousal
13. You are assigned to restore the educational system in a country which has just suffered from a natural disaster. According to Maslow, you should first consider 
A. Shelter and safety needs of the population
B. Whether the families know if other family members have survived
C. The primary or physical needs of the population
D. If the students are motivated to strive for achievement
14. "I am so tired of dieting. It seems like it controls my life. I wonder what my real weight would be if just ignored it and ate when I was hungry?" This dieter is curious about her 
A. Metabolic weight
B. Instinctive weight
C. Weight set point
D. Established weight
15. Stan enjoys food, but also maintains a great deal of self control during the week. His problem arises on the weekend. His girl friend is a great cook and he does not want to hurt her feelings. He knows if they ever married he would become enormous. Stan is struggling with 
A. A high metabolic rate
B. A low metabolic rate
C. The genetic aspects of eating
D. The social factors of eating
16. Simon was close to his father up to the moment of his untimely death. Since that dreadful day Simon has enjoyed the company of and made a point of befriending older men. He recognizes a need for a father-son relationship and appreciates the loneliness of latter years for many men. Simon is displaying a need for 
A. Recognition
B. Male reconciliation
C. Affiliation
D. Achievement
17. Nat really feels good about himself. His grades placed him on scholastic probation and his girl friend just dumped him, but he _______________. 
A. has the best truck in town
B. has been assured by his professor that he is capable of being a good student
C. found a five dollar bill next to the dryer in the Laundromat
D. knows his parents are coming for a visit
18. Louise thinks she is allergic to sexual activity. Arousal causes her to break out in a red rash on her chest and throat. She should be advised _______________. 
A. that such symptoms are dangerous, and she should report the problem to her physician
B. that the rash is an indication of a sexually transmitted disease
C. this is one of the risks of sexual activity. She should limit or abstain from intercourse
D. the rash is called "sex flush" and is not unusual
19. If Paul and Rita are exposed to erotic photographs of the opposite sex, it can be expected that _______________. 
A. Rita will report significantly less arousal than Paul
B. Paul will report significantly less arousal than Rita
C. the amygdale in Paul's brain will display greater activation than Rita's
D. the amygdale of Rita's brain will display greater activation than Paul's
20. Although Zach was born with the body of a male, he prefers soft fabrics, light fragrances, and the feel of sheer stockings on his legs. These are typically characteristics of _______________. 
A. transsexuality
B. transgenderism
C. transvestites
D. lesbianism
21. The Dobson twins are difficult to tell apart. They both have brown hair and eyes and wonderfully contagious smiles. They giggle easily and prefer peas to carrots. They are five-months-old. These likenesses are most likely the result of _______________. 
A. nature
B. nurture
C. the family structure
D. a supportive environment
22. "I remember being a very active child, always running and climbing. As an adolescent, life became more serious, and I became a quiet, thoughtful person. In young adulthood, I regained my excitement and sense of challenge. Now in middle age, I feel more mellow." The information above is typical of information gathered during _______________. 
A. cross-sectional research
B. cohort samples
C. sequential research
D. longitudinal research
23. Baby A has two X chromosomes while Baby B has an X and a Y chromosome. It is clear that _______________. 
A. Baby A is a girl and Baby B is a boy
B. Baby A suffers a genetic error and Baby B is healthy
C. Baby B suffers a genetic error and Baby A is healthy
D. the babies will have different hair color
24. Paul is a miracle. He weighed three pounds and requires oxygen to help his undeveloped lungs. He is at risk because _______________. 
A. he suffers from spina bifida
B. he was born preterm
C. of exposure to radiation
D. he suffers from phenylketonuria
25. Zena's physician has just assured her that she is indeed pregnant. She is surprised, delighted, and fearful. Her age, 45, gives her concern because she understands that _______________. 
A. Down syndrome occurs more frequently in mothers over 35
B. the risk of Tay-Sachs disease in higher in older mothers
C. phenylketonuria is correlated with maternal age
D. babies born to older mothers have a higher risk of childhood cancer
26. Teenage mothers who are accustomed to existing on hamburgers, French fries, and Cokes need to consider the nutritional needs of the child. Research has shown that a poor diet can _______________. 
A. restrict the development of eye and hair color
B. produce prenatal hearing loss
C. have adverse effects on the child's mental development
D. make delivery difficult for the mother
27. Emily and her mother have entered a new place. There are toys on the floor to play with, but no one else is in the room. After a few months on her mothers lap, Emily begins to move toward the toys and is soon playing happily while her mother reads a magazine. When a stranger enters the room, Emily looks at her mother's face to see how she reacts. She also walks over to her mother and touches her lap, staying close for a few moments. As the stranger and her mother begin to converse, Emily returns to the toys. According to Mary Ainsworth, Emily is _______________. 
A. an avoidant child
B. a disorganized-disoriented child
C. an ambivalent child
D. a securely attached child
28. Ryan was purchasing a new garden hose at Wal-Mart when he heard the raised voices in the next aisle. When the cart came around the corner, he had to move quickly to dodge an exploring preschool age child followed by an "out of control" mother. The mother threatened the child with extinction, but never gave him any information concerning the behavior she expected. It was a continual "Don't ¼or I will¼" She finally grabbed the child, forced him into the cart, and proceeded to tell him how "bad" he was. As Ryan watched the tearful and frightened child roll out of sight, he knew he has witnessed a/an _______________. 
A. authoritarian parent
B. permissive parent
C. authoritative parent
D. uninvolved parent
29. After little Raymond swiped the cake from grandmother's plate and kicked his grandfather in the shin, his mother commented, "Isn't he cute? He is a good problem solver and rather assertive you know." Mother could be described as a/an 
A. authoritarian parent
B. permissive parent
C. authoritative parent
D. uninvolved parent
30. Little Eddy is entering the first grade. He is eager to get started, because he knows there is much to learn. His brother and sister learned to read in the first grade, and he understands that this will happen for him also. Erikson would view this as a crisis because _______________. 
A. it is critical that Eddy become competent in the expected area, or he will carry inferiority as a part of his personality for years to come
B. Eddy must learn to act independently of his brother and sister or suffer the guilt of always being manipulated
C. this is a moment in which Eddy needs special protection as he explores, or he may doubt that he should ever have freedom to do so
D. the first grade is a critical year for the development of a trusting attitude toward the world
31. Clarence is good in math and expects to be successful. He digs into his math homework as if it were a steak dinner and experiences positive excitement as the teacher hands out the math papers. He has applied to Harvard Graduate School and expects to be accepted. Clarence attacks most aspects of life in the same manner. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. You could say that he _______________. 
A. has learned internal control
B. displays central trait
C. has a strong archetype
D. has high self-efficacy
32. According to Freud, anxieties and unresolved conflicts are repressed in the unconscious mind, but may be exposed briefly through slips of the tongue and dreams. 
True    False
33. All people have the same traits. They are simply different in the degree to which the trait applies to them. 
True    False
34. Skinner would agree that personality can be changed by modifying reinforcers. 
True    False
35. Self esteem is required for success. 
True    False
36. When Drake's wife was told she had cancer, he was at her side and has remained so throughout the tests and chemotherapy treatments. He has been so concerned with her physical well-being that he has ignored physical signals. Now he has to give up and admit that he feels run down and must be suffering from the flu. Drake has entered _______________. 
A. the coping stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome
B. the alarm stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome
C. the resistance stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome
D. the exhaustion stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome
37. Mr. Buss is a business executive. He has been dedicated to the company for ten years and worked his way up the corporate ladder to the position of third vice president. He is the first to arrive and the last to leave each day. He has no patience with those who might waste his time with trivialities. Mr. Buss is typical of _______________. 
A. Type B behavior pattern
B. Type A behavior pattern
C. an avoidant coper
D. a time urgent personality
38. Natalie sees the summer sky as bleak and has decided that sleep is an activity of which she is the most capable. She wonders if she has any tears left to shed over life, perhaps, life is not worth living. Natalie's thoughts and behavior are indicative of _______________. 
A. bipolar disorder
B. fugue
C. dissociative disorder
D. depression
39. "Yes, I am schizophrenic. I first realized I was different when a saw the rock open and found my mother standing there peeling potatoes." This patient is describing _______________. 
A. an auditory hallucination
B. a visual hallucination
C. a thought processing problem
D. a delusion of grandeur
40. In all her years of teaching, Jeffery is Mrs. Brown's greatest challenge. He is in his desk, out of his desk, under his desk, and never has a clue as to the directions she has given the class. Even with Jeffrey's desk next to Mrs. Brown's, Jeffrey is difficult to control. She wonders what he must be like at home. Jeffery's behavior is reflective of _______________. 
A. attention-deficit disorder
B. narcissistic personality disorder
C. borderline personality disorder
D. antisocial personality disorder
41. Daniel grew up in an unsupportive household, left home at age 14, and has experienced both success and failure since. Now in his thirtys, he has developed a stomach disorder which has been diagnosed as a bleeding ulcer. This history and these symptoms are indicative of a somatoform disorder. 
True    False
42. Teacher asked the class to vote on their choice of a research paper or hands on project for their writing grade in the class. The votes were recorded. She then exposed the class to a discussion which presented the advantages and disadvantages of each. The vote count changed. Students who were persuaded to change did so as a result of 
A. the attitude communicator.
B. the characteristics of the audience.
C. characteristics of the message.
D. indecisiveness.
43. When asked which candidate she thought would best represent the district Sue replied, "I'll vote for the one with the deep brown eyes and wavy hair. Did you hear that deep voice?" Sue is being persuaded through 
A. peripheral route processing.
B. central route processing.
C. the characteristics of the message.
D. dissonance.
44. Ted and Bryan are attending a redistricting meeting. Ted has some feeling about the questions, but tends to have confidence in the board. Bryan is intent on learning who will be affected by the change and the specific advantages and disadvantages to change the lines. Which person will be more apt to use central route processing? 
A. Ted because he knows some of the board members.
B. Bryan since he is interested in specific information.
C. Ted because he has some feelings about the issues prior to the meeting.
D. Both because both of their approaches are characteristics of central route processing.
45. "Unfortunately I have a D in the class, but I am an A student." When there is a difference between what I believe and what I do, 
A. cognitive dissonance will develop.
B. social cognition will be less decisive.
C. central route processing will be decreased.
D. attribution will be used.
46. "You can't be a coward and smoke a cancer stick." This statement reflects cognitive dissonance between 
A. the smoking habit and personal behavior.
B. the understanding that smoking leads to cancer and the logical of central processing.
C. the smoking habit and the understanding that smoking leads to cancer.
D. attitude and point of view.
47. "That can't be the librarian. Librarians are soft spoken, usually skinny old ladies, and they wear glasses on the end of their nose." This individual is describing 
A. cognitive dissonance for librarians.
B. attributions of the librarian.
C. social influence of the librarian.
D. a schema for librarians.
48. Harold was told that they were going to attend a boring party. Carl's wife told him they were going to the best party of the year. According to research the reports from the party goers will indicate that 
A. Carl was very bored with the party.
B. Harold was surprised that it turned out so well.
C. both Carl and Harold enjoyed the party.
D. D.both Carl and Harold tended to evaluate the party as it has been described to them beforehand.
49. "Do you think John forgets the time of his appointments? Perhaps he is always late because it makes him feel powerful or, maybe he is just disorganized?" These questions are being asked in order to 
A. determine whether John's tardiness is dispositional or situational.
B. explore John's emotional life.
C. make excuses for John's tardiness.
D. develop an attribution theory concerning John's attitudes.
50. A fleet of large trucks arrived in the mall parking lot after Janelle parked her car. When she returned to the lot she could not find her small vehicle in the maze of huge trucks. It took her at least half an hour of searching before she located her car. When telling the story to her family her husband remarked, "No one could be stupid enough to lose their car in a parking lot. Come on; tell me you are not that dumb." Her husband's error can be characterized as ______________. 
A. self-serving bias
B. fundamental attribution error
C. halo effect
D. assumed-similarity bias

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