April 16, 2014

Homework Help: Guru Blue unit 2

Posted by Tony KC on Wednesday, February 25, 2009 at 3:34pm.

So this is realy most of unit 6 but how much of my work do you wish me to give those that may be looking for the shortcuts and dont have the extenuating curcumstances. Would be better to do this private somehow.

Task 1 – Identify the following tenses, giving your reason for the identification:

a) Peter went to the cinema yesterday evening.
Past Simple. Past simple tense shows actions that happened in the past. The action above indicated by the irregular verb, ‘went’. ‘Went’ (from the base form ‘go’) indicates that an action has happened. The person or object has already gone.
The verb ‘Yesterday’ also requires it to be past.

b) He had been living there for most of his life.
Past Perfect. Used to indicate an action that finished before another action took place. The verb ‘had’ followed by a past participle. ‘had been’ Indicates the action is no longer happening but in this sentence some other action is, or did happen. This is reported speech.

c) I was sleeping at 2.00AM.
Past Continuous. Refers to an action that was in progress at a particular time in the past. Also used to indicate a past action that was going on when anther action occurred, or two past actions taking place at the same time. It was 2am. And I was sleeping. With Past Continuous tense a specific time interrupts the action. This sentence is incomplete because what was happening while I was sleeping at 2am?

d) John and Mary hadn’t been there before.
Past Perfect Simple. Expresses an action taking place before a certain time in the past. Describes when verbs from the simple present change into the simple past by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ or in this case had not been before. Reported speech of something in the past that never happened before now.

Task 2 – State as many usages as possible of the past tenses below, with an example sentence for each usage (not a sentence from the unit!).

a) Past simple
The past simple is used for almost all past states and is used to describe past actions which have been completed at the point of reference in the past - e.g. "I went to London on Saturday" (this action was in the past and it is complete).
1. Bob shot the pig.
2. John’s car broke down.
3. Last week I heard an eagle cry.
4. I borrowed Sam’s hammer.
5. He sold the vegetables.
6. She danced in the competition on Sunday.
7. I’ve been to the black forest before.
8. He concluded that the fire was an accident.
9. The journey ended before the storm started.
10. They hired the car yesterday.

b) Past continuous
The past continuous is used for past actions which were occurring at the point of reference in the past. It is not normally used for past states (love, hate, see, etc.) - e.g. "He was playing football this morning". The action was in the past and happening at the time mentioned {this morning}). Past Continuous is frequently used to show long past events. The verbs ‘was’ and ‘were’ followed by a present participle.

1. Sam was crying last week.
2. The team were preparing for this last month.
3. As he was watering the plants and it started to rain.
4. While I was having dinner, the dog got out.
5. Joe was washing the car while the children were cleaning the windows.

c) Past perfect
Past perfect simple is used to indicate past states and actions which happened before the point of reference in the past - e.g. "I had written my letter when the door bell rang" (the writing of the letter happened before the door bell ringing).
Used for an action completed before another took place. The action that happened earlier is indicated with this tense. Also used when the sentences are in indirect or reported speech. The verb ‘had’ is used followed by the past participle.

1. John had lived there years ago.
2. The concert had already begun when we got there.
3. The crew had abandoned ship.
4. The roof had fallen in on them.
5. Sue said her parents had gone out.

d) Past perfect continuous.
We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. It places emphasis on the course or duration of an action. Sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple.

1. I had been running for an hour when it started raining.
2. Sue said she had never been playing so much in one week.
3. I hadn’t been walking for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain.
4. When I saw him I knew that he had been eating.
5. He said he wasn't tired because he hadn't been preparing his classes.

Task 3 – State how the tenses below are formed grammatically. Explain positive, negative and question forms:

a) Past simple
Used with regular verbs:
infinitive + -ed or d to the base form of the verb
Affirmative: I visited England. He played football.
Negative: add did not or didn’t to the base form.
Question: add did plus subject plus base form.

Used with irregular verbs.
Affirmative: We went to the movies. We were in Spain last month.
Negative: He didn’t play football. I didn’t visit Spain.
Question: Did you play football. Did he pass the exam?
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
She washed her hair.
He didn't wash his motorbike.
I saw a movie last night.
I didn't see Bob yesterday.
Last year, I travelled to Thailand.
Last year, I didn't travel to Australia.
Did you have dinner last night?

Simple Past is also used to list a series of completed actions in the past. Actions that
happened 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.
I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.

He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the rest of the team at 10:00.
Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
I lived in Thailand for five years.
They did not stay at the school the entire time.
Sue studied Spanish for two years.
They sat in the park all day.
How long did you wait for it?
We waited for twenty minutes..
We talked on the phone some times.
b) Past continuous
Form: verb BE (in the past tense), and the -ING form of a verb.
Affirmative: When the rain started, I was reading a magazine
Negative: When the rain started, I wasn’t reading a magazine.
Question: Were you reading a magazine when the rain started?

Used to indicate that, a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. This interruption can be a real or just an interruption in time.
It is not normally used for past states (love, hate, see, etc.)

When the rain started, I was reading a magazine.
(The action of reading was going on at the time the rain started)
While we were having the meeting, it started to rain.
(The meeting was going on at the time the rain started)
I was watching TV when my dad came home.
(TV was being watched at the time Dad came home)
What were you doing when the movie started?
(what were you doing up to the time the movie started)

c) Past perfect
Form: The verb “had” + past participle
Affirmative: He said to me he had lost his bag.
Negative: He said to me he hadn’t lost his bag.
Question: Did he say he had lost his bag?

Q X !


The Past Perfect expresses that something happened before a specific time or another action in the past. An action that was completed before another action took place.

The gardener watered the garden before the sun had risen.
After he wrote in his diary, before he went to bed.
He said to me he had lost his bag.
She joined the company after she had finished university
If the Past Perfect is not indicating an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. Simple Past cannot be used for this reason.
He had never been to Disneyland before he moved to Paris.
You can’t say “He never went to Disneyland before he moved to Paris”. It’s incorrect.
d) Past perfect continuous
Form: Subject + had been + -ing.
Affirmative: I had been singing.
Negative: I hadn’t been singing.
Question: Had I been singing?
You / I had been singing. You / I had been walking.
You / I had been smoking. You / I had been snoring.
They had been playing. They had been hunting.
They had been cycling. They had been speaking.
She/He/It had been reading. She/He/It had been playing.
She/He/It had been driving. She/He/It had been floating.
We had been cooking. We had been flying.
We had been watching. We had been eating.

Task 4 – Give at least 2 teaching ideas (suitable for the Activate stage of a lesson) for the tenses below and give examples of sentences that you would expect your students to produce:

a) Past simple
Used to show actions that happened in the past.
Last night I heard a loud noise.
I bought some groceries at the supermarket.
Walked, wanted, cooked, ate, wrote, saw, threw, shot, sang, jumped.

b) Past continuous

c) Past perfect

d) Past perfect continuous

Task 5 – Complete the past simple form of these irregular verbs:

tell Told hide Hid
be Been eat Ate
bring Brought find Found
do Did buy Bought
see Saw go gone

Task 6 - Complete the past participle form of the same irregular verbs:

tell Telling hide Hidden
be Been eat Eaten
bring Brought find Found
do Did buy Bought
see Saw go been

Task 7 – How would you explain the difference in structure and usage between these tenses to a low-level student? Illustrate your explanations with example sentences of your own:

a) Past simple and past continuous

i) Explanation of differences in structure:

ii) Differences in usage:

iii) Example sentences:

b) Past simple and present perfect

i) Explanation of differences in structure:

ii) Differences in usage:

iii) Example sentences:

c) Present perfect and past perfect

i) Explanation of differences in structure:

ii) Differences in usage:

iii) Example sentences:

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