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2. (part II of #1): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology
5. (part II of #4): (early schools of thought): http://psychology.about.com/b/2008/02/23/early-schools-of-thought-in-psychology-structuralism-and-functionalism.htm
6. (Resource Center): http://psychology.about.com/b/2008/02/23/early-schools-of-thought-in-psychology-structuralism-and-functionalism.htm
I don't know if this will simplify things, but here are my lecture notes for introductory psychology in this area.
History of Psychology — Some students' minds switch to "off" when discussing history. To know me, need to know my past as well as present. Similar with psychology. Will summarize psychology's past with schools of psychology. (Don't memorize specific dates, but know sequence.)
I. Structuralism — was started by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 in Germany. His student, Edward B. Titchener, brought it to the United States. From the periodic table, hypothesized elements of thinking, feeling and sensation. To find these elements, used introspection, but only trained men to do this (explain). They defined psychology as the study of consciousness (explain).
II. Functionalism was started by Wm. James, John Dewey, Roland Angell in about 1890. Dewey and Angell founded first animal lab. In contrast to structuralism, defined psychology as study of organism's adaptation to its environment. Now can use animals, kids, even women (relate to Charles Darwin's work with ape-human comparison). Although still used a little introspection emphasized use of naturalistic observation (girl's drill team, peeping tom examples).
III. Behaviorism was founded by John Watson in United States about 1913. Against introspection (explain), Watson defined psychology as the study of measurable and observable data or behavior (S-->O-->R and candy machine examples). He emphasized environmental factors (explain). His student, B. F. Skinner, differed from Watson's view of "little black box." Skinner says can infer covert responses within an organism (slam clipboard example).
IV. Gestalt was found by Max Wertheimer , Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang KÂšhler in Germany about 1912. Disagreed with geometric axiom, "whole equals sum of parts" (explain, square, building and rearranged body examples).
V. Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytic) school founded by Sigmund Freud, who emphasized unconscious motivation (iceberg example) stemming from biological needs related to sex (explain by changing Gestalt from sex to food). Freud used dream analysis and couch (explain). He believed all behavior is determined by unconscious. WARNING! Do not become a "junior psychologist" (button and fingernails examples).
VI. Humanism founded by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow in 1940s. It became "Third Force" after behaviorism and psychodynamic schools (explain). It emphasized free will in contrast determinism of other two forces (explain). It is similar to Gestalt in terms of considering the whole person (explain).
VII. Eclecticism combines the best of various schools, including cognitive and biopsychological views (explain).
I hope this helps a little more. Thanks for asking.