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Jane Goodall, the eminent woman known for changing the human perception of chimpanzees, is a renowned primatologist, speaker, and humanitarian. After her parents divorced, Goodall was able to foster career skills at a young age therefore when she was older they would already be fine tuned. Immediately after graduating high school, Goodall enrolled in a secretarial program, instead of making a commitment to attend college. During this time, a friend invited Goodall to her family farm in Africa where she met the prominent Dr. Louis Leakey, who quickly noticed her talent and sparked her career. Soon after being hired by Leakey, Goodall was assigned to a three year study of chimpanzees which received much media publicity, and continued for many years. At Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve, Goodall made three mind-boggling discoveries. In the midst of her study, Goodall married Hugo Van Lawick with whom she had her son, Hugo, before divorcing. Soon after her divorce, Goodall married Derek Bryson. At the same time, Goodall was busy writing and being a visiting professor at many reputable universities. Following her study of chimpanzees at Gombe and an animal rights conference, Goodall began to speak out for the chimpanzees and their habitat. Goodall continues today to educate the public and promote volunteerism within her program, Roots and Shoots.
Upon the birth of Jane Goodall on April 3, 1934, no one foresaw that the infant would become the science prodigy she is today. Goodall was born to Mortimer Hebert Morris-Goodall, an engineer and amateur car racer and Myfanwe Joseph Goodall, a writer under the pen name Vanne Goodall (“Jane” 38). The Goodall family later expanded to five people, upon the birth of Judy, Goodall’s younger sister. In 1942, when Goodall was eight years old, her parents divorced and Jane went with Judy to live with their mother in Bournemouth, England. As a child, Goodall loved to go on adventures and commonly journeyed outdoors where she observed animals in their natural habitat. Because of her devotion to animals at a young age, Goodall was able to develop great observation skills and learned to be patient. One day, Goodall disappeared for many hours to sit in a chicken coop and waited patiently, watching to see an egg be laid. Her mother frantically searched the grounds and was about to call the police when she was approached by her daughter, prattling on about what she had witnessed, and gloating with pride. Goodall also enjoyed reading, especially her favorite book, The Story of Doctor Dolittle by Hugh Lofting. Goodall’s favorite stuffed animal, a chimp named Jubilee, is said to be the inspiration for her study. Goodall and Jubilee were always together, even though when she received the gift many thought the hairy creature would scare her. Although Goodall did well in school, she longed to be outdoors and upon finishing high school, decided not to go to college, but instead followed her mother’s suggestion and enrolled in a secretarial program (“Jane” 39).
After a short period of time in which Goodall was a secretary, she became an assistant editor at a documentary film studio. Although Goodall found the job very interesting, working as an assistant editor was a low paying job. After being invited to Africa by one of her high school friends whose parents owned a farm there, Goodall went back home to live with her mother and save money. While at home, Goodall worked as a waitress. When Goodall was twenty-three years old she had saved enough money to fufill her goal of traveling to Africa and visiting her friend’s farm. During her trip in Africa, Goodall was intrigued by the wildlife, culture, and aspects of African life. At the end of Goodall’s visit, she was determined to stay in Africa and took a quiet office job in Nairobi, Kenya (“Jane” 40).
Later that year, Goodall met Dr. Louis Leakey at the Natural History Museum. Upon speaking with Goodall, Leakey could see her unique intelligence and unflinching devotion toward animals. He offered her a job as his assistant secretary. For a short time, Goodall worked at Leakey’s Museum of Natural History and was ecstatic when Leakey invited her on a trip to Olduvai Gorge, a rich fossil site near Tanzania. Although it was a worthwhile trip, Goodall decided there that she definitely enjoyed studying living animals rather than those deceased. When Goodall, Leakey and the team of scientists were at Olduvai Gorge, near Tanzania, Leakey noticed Goodall’s work ethic and upon returning to Kenya, assigned her to a three-year study of chimpanzees (“Jane” 40).
Little to no studies had been conducted before and Goodall faced many problems before embarking on her study (“Jane” 40). Leakey had trouble raising funds for the project and although he wanted the study to last three years, he could barely raise enough money for six months. Luckily, audacious Goodall and Leakey were extremely determined to make the study successful and were never daunted by tasks. Then, the Tanzanian Government hampered Goodall’s study when they would not allow her to go into Tanzania. They said it was too dangerous for a woman alone, so Goodall convinced her mother to accompany her (“Jane” 41).
Goodall and her mother arrived at Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve, to embark on her laborious study, in 1960. The lush property near Lake Tanganika in Northern Tanzania was thirty square miles full of chimpanzees to study (“Jane” 41). At first Goodall could only view the chimpanzees from a distance because the chimps absconded due to her unfamiliar presence. Luckily, there was a lofty area, called the peak where she could hear and see the chimpanzees. After becoming used to her presence, the chimps allowed her to come within twenty yards. Being closer allowed Goodall to observe their daily routines. The chimps maintained boundaries and if they felt threatened with Goodall coming too close, the males would scream, expulse, charge at her and shake branches, warning her away from them (“Jane” 42). One day Frodo, a chimp, spasmodically attacked Goodall while she was trying to console him. Goodall quickly discovered that he was not trying to hurt her, but was showing and maintaining his boundaries and control (Gourley 1).
Goodall instantly noticed that each chimpanzee had a unique personality and like humans, used facial expressions with communication. Kissing, hugging and showing facial expressions proved their relation to each other. Goodall also discovered that the chimps lived in a hierarchy, with one paramount male in a group (“Jane” 42). They showed strong family bonds and commonly displayed signs of aggression and affection (Gourley 1). The others were related to the dominant male and behaved submissively around him. The hierarchy was based on each chimp’s size, age, aggression, and like many human governments today, the position of its parents. She named many of the chimps she came in contact with such as Flo, Gilka, Flint, Fifi, Goliath, Figan, Passion and Pom. One of the major breakthroughs in her career was when the chimpanzees began to trust her. She was sure they trusted her when one day a chimp named David Graybeard visited her camp and took bananas she had left out for him. When she appeared with a red palm nut, he didn’t scurry away, but instead showed his trust by taking the nut out of her hand and gently squeezing it. In Goodall’s many years of study this was the apex of her career (“Jane” 42).
In the next four years Goodall made many successful discoveries that rectified history books forever. Being a patient, extensive observer and careful, detailed note taker led to these findings. For instance, scientists had previously thought that chimpanzees were herbivores, but Goodall rectified the myth when she discovered they were omnivores, eating both meat and plants. Usually the carnivorous part of their diet consisted of baby bush pigs and small monkeys. Like humans, chimpanzees also hunt in groups. Soon after receiving recognition for that great discovery, Goodall made another perception-changing discovery that chimps had the ability to use and fabricate tools. For example, she observed David Graybeard, using a grass stem in a termite mound. After the stem broke, Graybeard continued to make a new tool by cutting a nearby vine and stripping off the leaves. To make a sharp end, Graybeard bit off a small piece from the end. Previously, the ability to create and use tools was a main characteristic that distinguished animals from humans. Goodall’s discovery made scientists redefine man and caused some controversy (“Jane” 43). For her many contributions to science, Goodall received the Franklin Burr Prize in 1962 (“Jane” 46).
Goodall met her soon to be husband, Hugo Van Lawick, in the early 1960’s. Van Lawick was a Dutch wildlife photographer sent by the National Geographic Society to photograph Goodall’s work at Gombe (“Jane” 46 and “Goodall” 1). Van Lawick lived at Gombe for two years with Goodall before marrying her in Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve on March 28, 1964. Surprisingly, thirty year old Goodall left Gombe for a European honeymoon with her husband (“Goodall” 1). It was also in 1964 that Goodall won the Franklin Burr Prize (“Jane” 46). A year later on December 22, the film “Miss Goodall and the Wild Chimpanzees” broadcasted for the first time in America. Due to the film, thirty-one year old Goodall became a semi-celebrity known for challenging scientists to redefine chimpanzee and man (“Goodall” 1). In 1965, at the age of thirty-one Goodall was the eighth person in history to receive a Ph.D. before completing her bachelor’s degree. She completed a PhD. Degree in ethnology at Cambridge University (“Jane” 39). In 1967, while Goodall and Van Lawick were still in Gombe, Goodall gave birth to her first son, Hugo, named after his father. Their son, Hugo Jr., also called Grub, was a problem to the chimps. He antagonized the chimps so bad that he sometimes needed to be put in a cage for his own safety. When he was old enough, Grub was sent to a European boarding school. However when he was grown up, Grub returned to the camp (“Jane” 46).
Goodall became very busy in acting as a visiting professor at many prominent universities, writing and still studying chimpanzees at Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve. At the age of thirty-six, Goodall began her visiting professorship at Stanford in psychiatry. In 1971, Goodall’s first book, In the Shadow of Man was published, beginning a great non-fiction and autobiography writing career. In the Shadow of Man showed an animal world much like our own. Two years later, Goodall became an honorary visiting professor of zoology at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, a position she still holds today (“Goodall” 1). The year of 1974 ended with Goodall divorcing her husband, Hugo, after ten years of marriage (“Jane” 46). Then, in 1974, Goodall won another prestigious award for her magnificent studies, the Bradford Washburn Award (“Jane” 47).
Soon after receiving the Bradford Washburn Award, Goodall made another astounding discovery of the chimpanzee’s resemblance to humans in wartime. In the four year war between the Kasakela and Kahama chimpanzee tribes, Goodall found how cruel the chimps were and that their tactics were just like humans. For example once, Passion and Pom stealthily snuck through the forest and then killed and ate infants. Luckily, the chimpanzee war was a lot less deadly in comparison to human wars, and after those four years, the war ended in 1978 with ten dead adult chimpanzees and five dead infants (“Jane” 44).
Their worst fears came true, on May 19, 1975 when the camp was attacked by terrorists hoping to gain media attention. Goodall and her team of scientists had feared terrorism since political tension had made the group a target. Fortunately, most, including Goodall were able to hide but the forty terrorists did capture four people. This event frightened Goodall and she adjourned her study and retreated to the capital of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. When she returned, however, she was accompanied by a bodyguard and began to devote more time to protecting chimpanzees (“Jane” 44). Later that year, Goodall remarried to the supervisor of the Tanzanian national parks, Derek Bryson. Sadly five years later, she was widowed when Bryson died of cancer (“Jane” 46).
Goodall attended an animal rights conference in Chicago specifically about the ethical treatment of chimps, especially those used for medical research during 1986. The conference mainly discussed the dwindling habitat and unethical treatment of chimpanzees for medical research. Other than educating the public about the rights of chimpanzees, Goodall also began to encourage African nations to use nature-friendly tourism programs. This made it possible for wildlife to become a lucrative asset for the countries. Goodall explained to people the chimpanzee’s lack of habitat and rapidly declining numbers due to hunting. Goodall also promoted ecological responsibility with many governments around the world (“Goodall” 1). Goodall learned in her study that chimpanzees were more successful in life when they were in their own environment because they were immune to diesease. When in contact with humans, the chimps were more susceptible to infectious diseases and commonly became diseased from human contact (Gourley 1).
Although Goodall does not endorse militant animal rights groups such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), she does believe that scientists must find an alternative to animal research. In Goodall’s opinion, militant animal rights groups make solving problems impossible and create many more (“Goodall” 1). Goodall is a proponent for the use of computer modeling and tissue culture research (“Jane” 45). She also believes young scientists, such as those in medical school, need to be taught to treat animals more compassionately. Students should be taught that maltreatment and torture are not okay and that animals are to be treated ethically and only be the subject of research when it is necessary to use them (“Goodall” 1). Goodall began to visit research facilities, to make sure the chimpanzees are treated humanely. In addition, Goodall fights for the chimpanzees in captivity, especially those in medical research facilities to have them put in bigger cages and the ability to be outdoors. Goodall also believes that it is important for chimpanzees to be in contact with other chimpanzees in fulfillment of their social needs (“Jane” 45). Another outcome of the conference was that Goodall wrote another book, The Chimpanzee Family Book, which received the UNICEF Book-of-the-Year Award and conveyed a humane view of wildlife to children (“Goodall” 2). Also, Goodall began to lecture all over the world, which she still continues today. Goodall makes over three-hundred visits and lectures a year (“Goodall” 1). Because of her great publication, Chimpanzees of Gombe Goodall won the R.R. Hawkins Award in 1987. A year later, at the age of fifty-four, Goodall won the National Geographic Centennial Award (“Jane” 47).
Goodall began a volunteer group in East Africa in 1991 that gave children a passion, understanding and awareness of animals, which she believed was our hope for the future. Goodall’s group, Roots and Shoots is named after twin chimps that were born at Gombe and has quickly spread to more than one thousand groups in fifty countries. The program is extremely successful because each group does at least three projects per year: one to benefit the environment, one to benefit animals and one to benefit the human community (Morell 1). In 1994, Goodall ended her studies for the most part, but still continues to advocate for chimpanzees and visit Gombe. A year later, Goodall became a professor-at-large at Cornell University, a position of which she held for six years (“Goodall” 1). At the age of sixty-four, Goodall won the Eco Hero Award from Animal Kingdom (“Goodall” 2).
Today Goodall continues to lecture around the world, traveling three hundred days a year on her Reason for Hope Tour. On her Reason for Hope Tour, Goodall explains how we are destroying our planet and encourages youth to join her organization, Roots and Shoots (Gourley 1). She is also the Scientific Director for the Chicago Academy of Science, Trustee of the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, and the International Director of Chimpanzees. In addition, Goodall created and now runs the Jane Goodall Institute and is on the advisory board of Advocates for Animals (“Goodall” 2). Goodall still teaches at many universities including Tufts University and Southern California University (“Goodall” 1). Jane Goodall works with Lake Tanganika Catchment Reforestation and Education (TACARE), which helps poor African nations with scholarships for girls, health care, family planning classes, conservation talks and HIV/AIDS information. TACARE also helps women and children and attempts to aid crop growth (Morell 1).
Jane Goodall showed great determination and ability, succeeding in everything she did. During a time period in which woman were not given the same respect as men, Goodall proved women were intelligent and through her notorious study, gained much respect. From a young age, many foresaw Goodall working with animals due to her patience and observation skills. Directly after finishing her high school career, and completing a secretarial program, Goodall arrived in Africa, finding it everything she had dreamed of. During her study of chimpanzees, Goodall was able to make three prestigious discoveries that changed science books forever. Today, after her triumphant study, Goodall continues to lecture and teach all over the world. She promotes conservationism, humanitarianism and the well-being of all animals to young people today. Goodall has truly shown she is a role model of many scholars, scientists, and young people today.
English- Proofreading - Writeacher, Sunday, March 30, 2008 at 8:57pm
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The rest looks good. Make sure the same types of errors aren't made in other paragraphs. Also, when you use the same source for all your citations, you need include "Jane" only in the first citation; the rest should be only the page number in parentheses.
strongest dominant intelligences - viola, Thursday, April 2, 2009 at 9:51am
would you agree,interpersonal intelligence,coinsides,with,your,emotional contagion intelligence,or is it the same?