Salut! Thank you for using the Jiskha Homework Help Forum. There is so much to tell you about the difference between the Subjonctif and the Indicatif! Let's begin with the essential difference. One word for the Subjunctive is "non-fact" but denoted by emotion, desire, hope. If you could look into a crystal ball you can NOT see that it ever happened or would happen. The Indicative is "fact" and looking into the crystal ball you can see that it DID happen, or WILL happen, etc.
When you are ready for an "indepth" look let me know. The problem is that the Subjunctive is "dying out" in English! For example, if you hear and say "If it was....." you are incorrect. That should be "if it WERE..." implying that it is not in fact.
As for "auquel" and "duquel"
When "à" and "de" are used before the forms of "lequel," the usual contractions take place.
auquel, à laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles
duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles
Auquel de tes amis as-tu écrit? (To which of your friends did you write?)
De quels enfants est-il fier? Desquels est-il fier? (Of which children is he proud? Of which ones is he proud?)
Let me know if you have questions on any of the interrogatives: qui, que, quel, lequel.....
Thank you! I have a difficult time with auquel and duquel because when I have to chose between the interrogatives lequel, duquel, and auquel, and other forms of them, I don't know which one to choose without translating the sentence to English first. Is there any other way I can know which one to use?
sometimes "de" is used even in the plural(instead of "des") - please explain when this is done
Thank you for using the Jiskha Homework Help forum. Here is more about Interrogatives that hopefully will answer your questions.
who? whom? (persons) what? (things)
subject qui qu'est-ce que
of verb qui est-ce qui
direct qui que (qu')
object qui est-ce que qu'est-ce que
of verb (qu') (qu')
after a qui quoi
Qui le fera? or
Qui est-ce qui le fera? = Who will do it? (NOTE: Who indicates subject.)
Qu'est-ce qui est tombé? = What fell?
Qui cherchez-vous? or
Qui est-ce que vous cherchez? = Whom are you looking for? (NOTE: Whom indicates direct object.)
Que cherchez-vous? or
Qu'est-ce que vous cherchez? = What are you looking for?
A qui pensez-vous? = Of whom are you thinking?
A quoi pensez-vous? = Of what are you thinking?
NOTE: There are short forms, as well as long forms above.
NOTE: 1. As an interrogative pronoun, "qui" may be used for persons in all three cases: as subject of a verb, as direct object of a verb, and after a preposition.
2. The "e" of "que" is dropped before a word beginning with a vowel; the "i" of "qui" is never dropped.
3. After the direct object forms "qui" and "que" the word order is inverted; after the long forms, the word order is regular.
to show possession: to show relationship
à qui de qui
A qui sont ces chaussures? = Whose shoes are these? (To whom do these shoes belong?)
De qui êtes-vous la nièce? = Whose niece are you? (Of whom are you the niece?)
which? what? which? which one(s)?
MASC FEM. MASC. FEM.
Sing. quel quelle lequel laquelle
pl. quels quelles lesquels lesquelles
(Sorry nothing lines up well in this narrow space!)
Dans quelle maison demeurez-vous? = In which house do you live?
Quel est le nom de ce village? = What is the name of this village?
Lequel de ces chapeaux est le plus cher?
= Which (one) of these hats is the most expensive?
NOTE: 1. The adjective "quel" agrees with the noun it modifies. The pronoun "lequel" agrees in gender and number with the noun it replaces.
2. The only verb that may separate "quel" from the noun is "être."
Quelle était la question? = What was the question?
3. In exclamations, "quel" means "what a!" or "what!"
Quelle machine! = What a machine!
Quelles figues délicieuses! = What delicious figs!
P.S. Often if you color code what causes you difficulty (bilious yellow, orange, green, etc.) it will stick in your "mind's eye" better!