I disagree your first answer.
1. In my experience, young children become prejudiced as they model the adults around them (D). For example, we moved to a new city when my oldest daughter, Sandy, was starting 3rd grade. She chattered a lot about her new friends, especially Pam. In December, we met Pam and her mother in the local grocery store. Sandy had told me a lot about Pam -- but hadn't mentioned that Pam is African-American (we're white). Obviously, it wasn't important to Sandy -- and I doubt if the racial differences even crossed her mind.
2. You may be right for this one. But I think it also shows effective training in the home (D).
You might want to check this site and your text.
On question 1 _--- my text states:
What is clear is that the development of
children's prejudice results from the
interaction between the natural processes of cognitive development related to the formation of categories and search for rules and regularities in the world,as well as the child's
absorption of negtive attitudes toward certain categories or groups of people present in the child's social environment.
Would question 1 be:
(C) cognitive development and negative
attitudes toward persons in the
(D) cognitive processes and pro-social
patterns that adults model.
On question 2(I read the site you suggested) Here is what my text states:
By age seven,children are well-aware
that gender and skin color stay the same as they grow older. They understand that many of their own features come from their parents,
and they are aware of their own ethnic
identity. Cognitively,they use heirarchical thinking to understand they
can be a member of several different groups simultaneously,such as a family,
a classroom,an ethnic group,a religion,
a city,at state,and so forth. As a result of the group affliation,children
at this age typically express preference for other children of their own race or ethnicity. Racial or ethnic
identity is significantly stronger in minority children. When white children are asked the question "Who are you?"
they usually give their name. Minority
children respond with their enthnicity
such as "I am an African-American,much
more than will white children.
Between seven and nine years of age, children become more aware of the world around them,of things that happened in the past,and of what might happen in the future.This is a good developmental
period in which to begin talking about
the cultural history and heritage of different groups and of people from different countries.
Another critical cognitive achievement
at this age is the ability to talk about feelings and to understand things from another person's perspective.
This perspective-taking ability allows the development of empathy. During this stage,parents and teachers play a major role in rethinking and finalizing
children's values and beliefs.
After the age of nine,children's attitudes toward race are resistant to
change. During the earlier preoperational phase, the limits on children's cognitive abilities make them vunerable to societal and family influences on their attitudes toward differences. Teachers have a responsibility to meditate and limit
these influences as much as possible during this developmental period.
Then,once the child's thinking becomes better able to handle the complex issues of racial and ethnic identity,by age seven, he or she is able to develop ways of categorizing and understanding human diversity without prejudice.
So, would question 2 be :
(A) hierarchical thinking
(D) effective training in the home
to nurture self-esteem and racial
Thank you for your time and help!
Your text makes it clear that C is the best answer for number 1.
After reading your text, I've changed my mind and believe that A is the best answer for number 2.
Sorry I misled you, but thanks for citing your text to clarify these answers.