You'll be reading books! There is no simple answer to this.
Studying your state's curriculum guide is a good idea, too. Here is the English curriculum guide for Texas:
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Curriculum guides, however, tell you only what needs to be taught and learned; they don't tell you HOW because each child learns differently from others. So ... once you know what the curriculum requires for the particular grade, then you'll need to study teaching methodologies for the age-group, in this case early primary grades.
There is no simple answer to your question, but if you keep working with the child, eventually lights will turn on.
One really interesting and useful set of books is E.D. Hirsch's collection, one of which is What Your First Grader Needs to Know.
If your child is not learning, it is frustrating, and challenging.
1) If all you try does not work, get a professional evaluation. Warning: most of these folks are in the business of selling beads to unknowing indians. They are usually very good at making great promises and providing very satisfactory progress reports, as long as you pay. Avoid this trap.
2) We learn by repetition spaced over time. Let me repeat that: 1) Repetition, 2) spaced over time.
a) flash cards
b) verbal and sight cueing
c) praise and encouragement.
d) modeling, especially in reading skills: read to your child, sound out the words with them. Let them read a line and you read five, when beginning.
e) positive reinforcement, praise. If you have doubts if you are doing this (it is easy to be negative), record a session, and then listen yourself. A good friend can give valuable feedback.
f) A child keeping a personal journal is very valuable. At first, it is nearly all drawings on a subject, but they will add words and sentences in time. Has to be done daily, without fail (Repetition spaced over time).
g) Some of us will learn a new task (like the sound of _th_ in five repetitions), but some take 15, and some 30. Everyone is different. I knew a very great special ed teacher who estimated it took most of her learning disabled kids to have about 25 repetitions of any skill, spaced over weeks, to learn new skills in reading and math.
Summary: Repetition, spaced over time, encouragement, and positive reinforcement. If it fails, seek a professional evaluator.
By the way, those Hirsch's books are usually in good bookstores: I suggest you visit a local Barnes Noble and take a look at the series, K or 1st, whichever is right level. They are seriously good material for a child and parent.
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Thank you for using the Jiskha Homework Help Forum. There are many sites on how to help to teach reading. Hopefully that is done an elementary school. The sooner parents begin reading with their children, the better. Only by increased reading will vocabulary increase.
Here is something you might do right now. Help your child to understand what kind of learner s/he is. If someone learns aurally (by hearing) then stress that. If someone is a visual learner, then stress that. If someone is a kinesthetic learner, that is the hardest kind of learning but once grasped will stay forever! If someone would read into a hand-held tape recorder, leaving a space after each phrase or partial there are many ways you can utilize that. Of course, the model should be clear, correct.
At first the child only listens passively. At lest intonation, pronunciation will get through. After sufficient listening, the child should then repeat in that space left after the phrase or partial. This is a slow process and won't be done "overnight." The third step is to listen and READ in that space. The final step is to WRITE in that space, much like dictation. (steps = listen, repeat, read, write)
By kinesthetic it means to literally trace or walk through the words. Ultimately, if you can stand it, the child can read to you!
For a visual learner, color coding with bilious yellow, green, orange, etc. can help SET spelling problems. Somehow the color filters into the memory better than black and white for many.
Back to sites:
4. (part II): http://www.readingrockets.org/
9. (general): http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/english/contents.htm
10. (materials & plans): http://www.ohiou.edu/esl/teacher/reading.html