Monday
October 20, 2014

Homework Help: geography

Posted by akiru on Wednesday, October 3, 2007 at 6:15am.

Hello, this might be quite a task, but I would like for someone to summarise my entire assignment into optimamly 300 words. Yes, that's right, I'm crying right now, after realizing I have gone over the word limit by 2649 words. Anyone have some spare times?

The graphs and pictures are not included, I'd like to keep them for now

Here it is:

Over the last few years, with the aid of countless documents, reports and presentation, the world has come to realize the affects of climate change. From the information learnt, especially linked to the overwhelming amount of Carbon-Dioxide (main greenhouse gas responsible for climate change) being emitted into the atmosphere, the world is now making an attempt to combat this unnatural phenomena.

The European Union’s respective member countries, will undoubtable be affected by the devastating result of nature’s, and most importantly our own actions. Initiatives such as the Kyoto protocol which are aimed at stabilising our environment have induced mass efforts to confront the issue; however, a second step needs to be taken to ratify this agreement by the set date.

The EU earned the praise of the world when it presented the emission trading scheme, but it has yet to have the EU-15 and 25 on a steady path towards stable green house gas emissions. The EU now leads the way in reduction of emissions, itself producing approximately 15% of the world’s greenhouse gasses

Impact in Future

Scenario One

Climate Change is not effectively prevented

Slight warming of the North of Europe has been predicted to have a positive benefit, especially in agriculture and farming related industries. However, further increases in temperature are set to have an overall detrimental effect, the aftermath of heating over 2ºc (2). Furthering the plight of vegetation will likely be the loss of water available for plants. This should indeed counter the affects of the original trends.

The melting of the Polar Ice caps, and varies other ice bodies will lead to rising sea levels. This shall indirectly lead to an increase in frequency of severe weather conditions. Heat waves, storms, floods and turbulent winds may rage through the EU nations. Spain and Europe, currently in undergoing drought, will have its situation worsened. Other Mediterranean countries will have their food shortages furthered. Decline in resource stocks and migration will lead to catastrophic financial situations for all but the few (If any become so other than the USA) self sustainable economies.

Thermohaline circulation disruptions foresee a unpredictable ocean. Plagued by these disturbances, sea trade will become increasingly difficult. Certain species of Sea-Turtle who take advantage of these currents for navigational assistance will have their life-style and way of life thrown into disorder.

The consequences of failing to prevent climate change, and global warming in particular, are unacceptable. However, through, the furthering of “Green” initiatives, this reality can be averted.

EUROPA – European Commission
May 25, 2005
Is a slight warming not going to be beneficial overall, especially in northern Europe?


Scenario Two

Climate Change is effectively prevented

World conditions would emulate the Green house gas conditions of the 1990’s (The Target of the Kyoto Agreement in relation to C02. With the increased planting of vegetation (If this is the method involved) plants may be found in abundance. This should welcome wildlife into the habitat, the result of an increase of producers in the environment.(3) Animals, as a resource themselves (furs, animal products...ex.) will benefit the economy. This shall indefinitely improve the situation of countries enduring a food shortage.

Cars and various other greenhouse gas emitting products may be found to increase in cost in the short term. This will come about from the injection of money into advanced and clean modes of transport. However, the resulting cleaner air, and improvement of living standards (at the improvement of economy) can be seen to out way the detrimental aspects.


Preventing and Reducing the effects of Climate Change


Suggestion One
“Emissions trading
Emissions trading can take place between countries with Kyoto targets, ie industrialised nations. Reflecting the emission targets agreed in Kyoto and under the EU ‘burden sharing’ agreement, each country will be assigned a fixed maximum amount of emissions that it may emit over the commitment period (2008-2012). Countries that emit less can sell the unused quota to others that emit more. This will allow reductions to take place where they are cheapest, reducing compliance costs.
Inspired by this model, the EU has developed and implemented its own company-level emissions trading scheme. This ‘cap and trade’ system, launched on 1 January 2005, covers all 27 EU Member States and is the first and biggest international emissions trading scheme in the world. It has developed rapidly and is now driving the fast-expanding global carbon market.
Under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), Member States set a national ‘cap’ on CO2 emissions from over 10,000 energy-intensive plants (power plants, steel factories, oil refineries, paper mills, and glass and cement installations). Together these installations account for almost half of the EU's CO2 emissions. Within the limits of their national cap, governments issue allowances to each installation to emit a certain level of CO2 each year. These allowances are tradable.
Companies that emit less than the number of allowances they receive can sell the surplus to companies that have problems staying within their limits, or for which emissions reduction measures are more expensive than buying allowances on the market. Any company may also increase its emissions above the level of its allowances by acquiring more allowances from the market.
By putting a price on emissions and a value on emissions saved, the scheme has made climate change a boardroom issue for the companies involved and given them a permanent incentive to minimise CO2 emissions and fully integrate emission costs into their decision making. The system induces operators to make emission cuts where they are cheapest, thereby ensuring that reductions are made at the lowest possible cost to the economy. It also fosters innovation - companies have an incentive to improve their energy efficiency and invest in climate-friendly technologies.
The EU ETS is being closely watched by businesses and governments around the world and serving as an important reference point for others developing their own schemes, eg seven north-eastern US states, California, and states and territories in Australia. The EU has indicated its willingness to link the EU ETS to other cap-and- trade schemes to form a global emissions trading network.”

Suggestion Two
“Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) allow industrialised countries to achieve part of their emission reduction commitments by investing in emission-saving projects abroad and counting the reductions achieved toward their own commitments. JI covers projects in other industrialised countries with Kyoto targets, while CDM projects are carried out in developing countries. The two mechanisms lower compliance costs, promote the transfer of advanced technologies to developing countries and economies in transition, and foster cooperation between countries with Kyoto targets.
CDM credits can be generated retroactively, from 2000 onward, while JI credits must be generated during the 2008-2012 period. The CDM is thus already operational. A condition for the issue of credits is that the projects result in real, measurable and long-term emission savings that are additional to what would have happened without the projects. Several EU Member States intend to buy CDM and JI credits to help them meet their Kyoto targets. Collectively they have budgetted more than €3 billion to do so.
The EU Emissions Trading Scheme is linked to CDM and JI. Companies covered by the scheme can use emission credits from most types of CDM projects and from JI projects (from 1 January 2008) to offset their emissions in the same way as emission allowances. This link is driving investment in CDM and JI projects by European companies, in addition to the purchases planned by governments.”

Evaluation of Proposed Ideas

Suggestion Two

The criteria of CDM and JI allow for industrialized countries to invest in their sibling’s CO2 reducing projects. In an effort to benefit economies and ties between fellow nations. The proposed idea will likely initiate other projects to improve the current climate damaging conditions.

The competition bread by nations investigating in others will see those competing for recognition on the world stage. By participating in the respective schemes, companies and countries are broadening their own options, while offsetting the problems associated with limited CO2 emission allowances.

Suggestion One

This extract from a press release released by EUROPA details the initiative of the Carbon trading scheme. This ingenious concept involves the ability for countries pursuing Kyoto Protocol targets to trade their excessive carbon emissions with other countries.

By initiating this idea, countless smaller and poorer countries will able to be bankrolled by heavily industrious (and polluting) nations. This will essentially mean the countries which are emitting the least amount of harmful greenhouse gasses (that are generally the one’s with the weakest economies and of worse financial situation) are bankrolled by larger one’s. This will inturn bring about a significant bolstering of these small nations monetary worth.

However, the aim of the idea is to further encourage larger countries to minimize their emissions. By doing so, they are ensuring that they will have to trade off the least amount of CO2, and if possible share another country’s burden
As a result, the world will look to reduce their emissions even more consciously. With an indefinite target, rather than that set by the Kyoto Protocol, CO2 are sure to drop to their comfortable levels in 1990. However, the greatest danger posed, minor as it is, will be the advanced stages of the system. Following it’s possible success in which smaller realms have become to an extent dependant of it, it is possible that a country may find it producing CO2 along with other harmfully gasses without hesitation, having the knowledge that it can be passed on. This unlikely scenario would demand a conscienceless nation which would in the process would be flaunting the Kyoto Protocol

What Currently Stands in the Way of the EU, working together with the world to reduce the effects of Global Warming

We have the technology and the know-how to move our economy forward and reduce global warming emissions safely and affordably

FRANCES BEINECKE
President
National Resources Defense Council (NRDC)



Not enough Individual contributions from certain Member states



The Change value in this graph is what we are realy looking at, given that each has already ratified the Kyoto protocol. There are significant differences of change between nations on time, and each should be striving for the greatest percent INCREASE OR DECREASE? Possible.

Greater Initiatives from EU scientists


We can see here that the EU’s 2006 budget allocated the least of their significant area budget to research and development. This undoubtedly hinders the abilities of EU scientists and their ability to communicate with the wider world. Although this is a great amount of spending, when appropriated to federal spending in countries such as that of Australia, percentage wise, the EU seams to have but a tiny slice of their funding in such a crucial area. Australia’s Research and innovation budget for 2006 was 7%, while the EU had theirs at 4.3%


The People of the EU emitting less Green-house gasses individually
Businesses outweighing temporary wealth, with the climatic state of the world
Political unwillingness and lack motivation


Despite the EU and their close affiliation to the Carbon Offset Schemes, aswell as their commitment to the likes of the Kyoto Protocol; surprisingly, their politicians and ambassadors appear to have little drive for such that is for the greater good. On the decision of Europa’s Research division, we see spending on the environment (which we can assume covers the combating of climate change) is hardly a priority. As their third least concern, it staggers just afore Competitive and Lasting Growth and Human Potential.


What can be done to combat these issues:


Not enough Individual contributions from certain Member states

Member States each given individual target Carbon Caps for the Kyoto Protocol, to deal with slack countries

Greater Initiatives from EU scientists

Greater Funding combined with incentives

The People of the EU emitting less Green-house gasses individually

Advertisement Campaigns and information sessions to raise awareness

Promotions and competitions

Campaigns that play on people’s interests and how they’ll tie in with emitting less green-house gasses

Eg. Saving on electricity bill


Businesses outweighing temporary wealth, with the climatic state of the world


Product Selling Companies


^Businesses subsidized for their emission savings and initiatives

^Higher standards for greenhouse gas emitting products

^I.e. Cars made to higher standards


Greenhouse Gas emitting Companies (factories and their like)


^Limitations and caps on how much can be emitted, based on profits, aswell as a global cap

^Rewards through business based Carbon Trading schemes (intra-national)


Political unwillingness and lack motivation

In Democratic countries, information seminars on the topic of Global Warming in conjunction with increased public interest in politics would see the more assertive of Politics in greater support of combating Global Warming elected into parliament.

How The EU can Work with the rest of the world for a more successful approach to Global Warming

1. The EU has already adopted the Carbon Trading Scheme, which they themselves brought into being. However, a debate has emerged between whether this scheme, or the Carbon Tax scheme will be most affective. In affect, the more in which the world participated and worked together for wither of these two proposals, the greater the result.

The point raised by the Economist was that Carbon Tax was efficient transparent and simple.

The Los Angeles Times agreed by raising the point of unpredictability, and the ability to Cheat in Carbon Trading Schemes.

If Emission trading is taken up by other countries, or the EU replaces the current system in favour of Carbon Tax, we should be privileged enough to a more harmonised system.

The reason for this will differ for each of the two concepts.

a) Carbon Trading: The more countries participate, the greater the range of it’s benefits. Nations that join in will be cutting down their emissions, while benefiting the less economically structures developed countries.

b) Equivalence in the method in which money is extracted from emitting faculties would mean that companies cannot exploit the concepts in a bid to be less taxed or reduce their total emissions.

If COUNTRY A
COUNTRY B
COUNTRY C

All developed countries, also adopted the Carbon Trading Scheme, instead of a proposed current Carbon tax scheme, the world would have a better chance of demeaning the effects of climate change

2. If considered a single state, the EU is currently the world’s largest economy. This throws the Union into the debate of economic growth vs environmental sustainability. With such statistics, it may be considered only fair that the “country” sacrifices it’s own growth so that there is even less toll on the environment. As disclosed by the EUROPA website, the EU currently produces ______ INSERT AMOUNT FOR IMPACT IN CARBON DIOXIDe here____ .


Once such an initiative is taken up by such role models, other developed countries will follow. Another initiative would be to spend the assets of the economy on developing and third-world countries, for which it would be dangerous


As there a significant costs in the mitigation of the effects of climate change, a compromise between economic giants must be made, possibly through the initiative detailed below


3.


Conclusion


Global Warming and climate change in general poses an imminent threat to the wellbeing and lifestyle of the people of the world, the wildlife and our environment. With a combinations of technologies and initiatives, the affects of the damage that has been done can be halted, and the alternative future reality of green house gas domination can be averted.

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