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April 21, 2015

Homework Help: psychology

Posted by jenna on Monday, November 6, 2006 at 8:45am.

Can someone give me an example or a classical conditioning and operant conditioning?

The best-known example of classical conditioning was Pavlov's dog. In my own experience, I associate the smell of roses with funerals, probably because of an early childhood memory.

Operant conditioning occurs when a particular behavior is rewarded or punished. Parents tend to use operant conditioning with their children, by either rewarding desired behavior or punishing undesirable behavior.

Check these sites for more information.

http://www.wagntrain.com/OC/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operant_conditioning



Classical conditioning is characterized by several factors.

I. The key relationship is associating antecedent events.

II. It originates with reflexive behavior. The behavior is "built in."

III. Classical conditioning is essentially a process of stimulus substitution. The response essentially remains the same.

IV. The response is elicited, since the behavior is reflexive.

Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning was started by Skinner and his box. In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning has some specific qualities.

I. Consequences to responses are the key relationship.

II. Emitted responses are voluntary rather than reflexive.

III. Response substitution occurs -- unreinforced responses go to extinction, while reinforced responses become stronger. Essentially operant conditioning is response contingent reinforcement.

Salivating when you smell food cooking would be a reflex. Connecting the salivation to someone unwrapping the package to be cooked or even discussing cooking would be classical conditioning.

Learning how to rotate a doorknob to open a door would be operant conditioning. We try one direction. If that doesn't get reinforced by opening the door, we try the other direction. After some familiarity with that door, we only turn the knob in the reinforced direction.

I hope this helps. Thanks for asking.

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