Wednesday
July 23, 2014

Homework Help: Psychology -- anyone please.

Posted by Anonymous on Sunday, July 16, 2006 at 2:58pm.

Hey everyone,

We should teach rewards should not be expected but they should be a "bonus".

The book (p.249) mentions that take-home pay is also and extrinsic reward. Would we work without it? Now this is expected!

I guess part of the motto is Punishment shoudl fit the crime-reward should fit the behavior and some rewards are part of life where others are extra's. Now that is complicated! So is life. We all raise our children our own way. Teachers reward and punish in their way and we all have to co-exist and learn to accept all the different ways of the world.

How should I respond to the above post?

Below is what the subject we are refering to.

Early behavioral psychologists demonstrated it is easier to modify behavior when the expected behavior is rewarded. For example, you compliment your child for doing well in school, or you get coupons for your next purchase because you spent so much at the grocery store.

Explain the benefits of using this type of behavior modification correctly. Also explain some negative affects that can occur if the wrong behaviors are rewarded.

And below is what I have written.

When early behavioral psychologist determined it would be easier to modify behavior by rewarding good behavior they were on to something.jGiving rewards is an excellent method of teaching behavioral expectancies according to studies currently being done. They also recommend that discipline be used as needed to correct unacceptable behavior. The main focus is to reward the good behavior not the bad. However, according to Yale Bulletin and News Stories, "Emphasis needs to be placed on rewarding desired behavior, not on punishing and unwittingly reinforcing deviant behavior” (Yale Bulletin and News Stories). This difference in thinking has caused many arguments over what is the correct ideology.
My personal ideology is that rewarding good behavior teaches the individual when you do something asked you get the reward. Therefore, the person will do the expected behavior in order to receive the positive reinforcement. Receiving positive reinforcements or rewards can contribute to the person doing the expected behavior more often. For instance, you have a child whom is learning to be potty trained; every time they do this correctly they get a reward. This teaches them, using the potty is an expected behavior because they get a reward. Often times they will try to go to the bathroom even if they do not need to just to get the reward. This can lead to problems when they become so fixed on getting the reward, missing the true reason of going to the potty to not have to wear pull-ups or wet pants (Which if you have ever had to wear wet pants, is a reward in and of itself).
That is why it is essential to reinforce the action being done and only reward when they have completed the action correctly without prompting. If they go to the potty and do nothing, they should not get a reward. Likewise, as the action becomes more natural, the rewards should be slowly decreased until they are completely abolished. Once a behavior is learned, it does not need to be rewarded every time it is accomplished!
On the other hand, rewarding bad or unacceptable behavior is not desired. If you reward an individual for performing unacceptable behavior, you are in fact encouraging them to repeat this undesirable behavior. This can have dire effects on the individual as well as society should they perform the unacceptable behavior in public. For example, many parents think it is cute when their young son, learning to be potty trained, relieves himself off the porch into the yard. They reward this behavior by telling the child good job because he did not wet his pants. While it is a good thing he did not wet his pants, the fact that he did not use the correct facilities means he should not have been rewarded. Many will think what is wrong with this scenario; after all, he is a boy. Well, imagine this same boy relieving himself off the porch of your local church while everyone is coming into the morning gathering. Not quite so acceptable anymore is it?
This is where you have to be careful when deciding what behavior to reward and what behavior to not reward. To a small child, a porch is a porch. They do not understand the reason you are punishing them for something they got told good job for at home. Consistency is just as important when teaching a lesson as comprehending and retaining the lesson regardless of whether a reward is being given or not.

I just like to answer the post at the very begining. Can anyone please help?


We should teach rewards should not be expected but they should be a "bonus".

The book (p.249) mentions that take-home pay is also and extrinsic reward. Would we work without it? Now this is expected!

I guess part of the motto is Punishment shoudl fit the crime-reward should fit the behavior and some rewards are part of life where others are extra's. Now that is complicated! So is life. We all raise our children our own way. Teachers reward and punish in their way and we all have to co-exist and learn to accept all the different ways of the world.

How should I respond to the above post?
-------------------------------

Let's look at your initial statement -- "We should teach rewards should not be expected but they should be a 'bonus'." This concept may apply to returning a lost wallet or saving a drowning child. But it doesn't apply to most of our activities.

In ancient times, hunters and gatherers and, later, farmers were "rewarded" by obtaining the food necessary for life. The food was not a "bonus," but a natural result of the people's labors. As society became more complex, those who didn't have to labor directly in producing food had to have their work rewarded by other means -- usually by money to buy food and shelter. That's what a paycheck is today -- a natural, necessary, and expected recompense (extrinsic reward) for performing tasks and producing goods that are useful to the community.


Here are some articles that deomonstrate the complexities of reward (reinforcement).

http://www.members.cox.net/dagershaw/lol/Reinforcement.html
http://www.members.cox.net/dagershaw/lol/ReinforceRandom.html
http://www.members.cox.net/dagershaw/lol/RewardTooMuch.html
http://www.members.cox.net/dagershaw/lol/RewardDoWell.html

Both rewards and punishments are more effective, if they occur immediately after the deed they desire to modify.

I hope this helps a little more. Thanks for asking.


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